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INCLUDE is the knowledge platform on inclusive development policies.
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Getting up to speed with inclusive development

4. Mai 2022 - 14:57
The INCLUDE team’s reading list: April 2022

Every month we share with our readers a curated reading list on inclusive development. This month, we are zooming in on Growth Sectors for Youth Employment, following the African Economic Research Consortium’s (AERC) Regional Policy Forum on March 28 on Work and Income for Young Women and Men in Africa.

Which economic sectors have the potential to significantly create employment for youth? To what extent can industrialisation achieve the same successes in sustained job growth in Africa as it has for Western countries? According to the World Bank Group, both in a recent issue of the Africa Development Forum Series and in the latest volume of Africa’s Pulse, industrialisation offers a viable path to job creation in Africa. Africa can exploit opportunities in global value chains by facilitating productivity growth and promoting competitiveness. A recent article in the Journal of Economic Perspectives confirms this view, emphasising African manufacturing has increased employment opportunities, but that large manufacturing firms have not managed to reach potential employment gains.

Naturally, the continent is not homogenous and every African country demands a context-specific examination of potential growth sectors. This much needed nuance is provided within the AERC’s policy notes, written as part of a project commissioned by INCLUDE with an aim to provide research evidence on the economic sectors with the highest multipliers and potential to create employment opportunities for young people. Findings from nine country case studies are summarised in this blog.

Lastly, an established strategy to create job opportunities is through entrepreneurship. To learn more, this podcast by Brookings ‘Foresight Africa’ explains the importance of micro, small, and medium enterprises in creating employment opportunities for youth in Lagos, Nigeria.

Stay tuned for more updates on growth sectors in the coming months – our work will continue, and there is a lot more to learn.

Het bericht Getting up to speed with inclusive development verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Looking ahead to build forward more inclusively?

20. April 2022 - 14:58

The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation of the Netherlands (MFTDC/BHOS) organized an online consultation for its upcoming policy note. The consultation focused on trade and international opportunities for Dutch companies, as well as development cooperation. Below you can read our contribution to the online consultation. INCLUDE’s input represents the connection between researchers, policy makers and practitioners from different African countries and within the Netherlands. For more information, visit the Online consultation web page.

Inclusive development and growth

While African countries experienced growth in the past decade, a large number of people are still excluded from the benefits of this progress. The Netherlands can be bolder in promoting inclusive development that aims to reduce poverty, both in income and non-income dimensions, and inequality, through improved redistribution. A meaningful long term operating strategy should include investments that can help developing countries upgrade their positions in the global value chain. This involves carefully designed and locally driven social investments and conscious job creation with local benefits. It also means that in the formulation of policies, the voices of those whom it is about should have the lead, not just be present or represented.

The Growth sectors for youth employment programme of INCLUDE has identified key growth sectors in Tunisia, Uganda, Nigeria, Kenya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Senegal and Mozambique. The sectors with highest potential for growth are agriculture and agribusiness, manufacturing, services, digitalization in the health and education systems, energy, and lastly industry and local processing of raw materials before export. The sectors with the highest potential vary per country. On top of promoting growth sectors, technological and knowledge transfer is necessary, as well as promoting responsible business practices for sustainability. For more on this, visit the ‘Dutch multinational businesses in Africa’ page.

Partnering with non-market actors such as civil society organizations (CSOs), knowledge institutions and public actors can help develop and embed innovations in the local market and align business models with local cultural, social, and political realities. For more information on this see the Research for Inclusive Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (RIDSSA) programme that INCLUDE coordinated.

Youth employment in the green economy, and the digital economy

Efforts are still necessary to boost decent employment for youth in African countries and it is evident that youth themselves should be involved in the decision making processes. Girls face disparate barriers to decent employment, which require interventions that focus on access to finance, childcare services, and engaging with biases in access to jobs in certain sectors. Women generally occupy the more precarious and low-skilled positions within value chains, involving less capital, assets, lower income, and opportunities. INCLUDE provides a more in-depth analysis of agri-industrial value chains of cotton and fish in Uganda.

Overall, the agricultural sector remains the most important sector to invest in for a food secure future. In addition, agriculture continues to be the main employment sector in many countries, and a first pillar for further development and a rise in welfare and wellbeing of populations. Besides the above, promoting the green economy is a potential source for decent and green jobs. This means to shift from unsustainable practices to more sustainable ones, opening new opportunities for employment. Industries without smokestacks can play a role in this, including the (digital) services and tourism sector.

Governments and private sector actors, as well as NGOs and CSOs are increasingly looking to digital solutions for contemporary problems. However, this may cause the creation of a digital divide between those who can access and participate in the digital turn and those who cannot. Can we turn this divide into a digital dividend for all? Digitalization of various public services, but also the role of digitalization in innovation with private sector actors is an upcoming theme of interest for INCLUDE.

Bridging the gap between research, policy, and practice

Bridging the gap between research, policy and practice is a continuous effort that the Netherlands can contribute to. Established and dedicated knowledge platforms play a key role in this, and the Netherlands has several thematic Knowledge Platforms that have demonstrated quality as knowledge brokers, synthesizers and producers. Coordination and sharing knowledge and lessons learned between and within programmes of Dutch development cooperation can help prevent the reinvention of the wheel.

The key aspect to this is to get everyone involved in a theme or issue to come together and engage in a dialogue. The African Policy Dialogues, organized by INCLUDE and its partners, are set between government, research, and other involved stakeholders in specific policy themes. In cooperation with other countries, organizations and knowledge institutions, the Netherlands can leverage its strength as knowledge promotor (see for example the collaboration between INCLUDE/IDRC/ILO with Decent Jobs for Youth).

Lessons learned from COVID-19: social protection and food security

The Covid 19 pandemic, as well as the war in Ukraine, show once again the absolute necessity to increase the continent’s agricultural productivity (especially in rice, maize, cereals, livestock, dairy, fish, and poultry) to ensure food self-sufficiency and even to become a net exporter. Resilience to shock and the mitigation of its effects is crucial in times of a pandemic. Inequalities and vulnerabilities that already existed were exacerbated, with COVID-19 being a crisis upon crises. The lessons we learned from the COVID-19 pandemic should be used to improve and focus the Dutch development cooperation. These lessons include that socio-economic recovery should be directed at youth, women and vulnerable or excluded groups.

During the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many governments and humanitarian organizations scaled up their efforts in direct cash transfers. We also highlighted this during our INCLUDE’s conference back in June 2021. Social protection in a redistributive manner tackles some of the inherent inequalities in the economic systems. The Netherlands could show more leadership in actively promoting social protection. Social protection is not charity, it is a right. Holistic social protection programmes are absolutely necessary, not only in terms of tackling vulnerabilities that are exacerbated during or after future shocks, but also to boost economic growth.

Het bericht Looking ahead to build forward more inclusively? verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Getting up to speed with inclusive development

4. April 2022 - 10:38
The INCLUDE team’s reading list: March 2022

Every month we share with our readers a curated reading list on inclusive development. This month we are zooming in on inclusive employment.
The global labour market is unlikely to return to pre-pandemic performance for much of the world over the coming years, according to the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) flagship report World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2022. With an estimated working-hour deficit equivalent to 52 million full-time jobs, this report clearly sets out to what extent COVID-19 has negatively impacted the road to decent employment for all.
Short term efforts to reduce the immediate effect of the crisis in Africa have varying success rates. The Center for Global Development’s policy paper Social Protection in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons from South Africa found South Africa’s social protection response to COVID-19 largely successful and more extensive and durable than in the rest of Africa. However, the ILO report emphasises the need for longer term solutions.
The African Center for Economic Transformation in its  multi-country study addresses opportunities to strengthen education and learning systems to deliver the workforce required in the years to come, while the Partnership for Economic Policy conducted a cross-country analysis of productive employment in rural farm and non-farm sectors in sub-Saharan Africa. While both reports give promising policy recommendations, they also reiterate that youth, particularly young women, face the biggest obstacles to achieving decent employment. This confirms that our research into inclusive development is highly relevant and sorely needed.

If you’d like to know more about our work, take a look at our multi-donor research initiative on Boosting Decent Employment for Africa’s Youth. You can also read more on the subject on our Growth Sectors for Youth Employment Programme webpage.

Het bericht Getting up to speed with inclusive development verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Hive-minded: what’s working for inclusion in apiculture?

23. März 2022 - 11:12

Inclusive development, to INCLUDE, is development that aims to reduce poverty and inequality through ensuring participation of marginalised/excluded groups of people in the development process, in terms of both non-income and income dimensions of poverty (1). Productive employment is identified as one of the domains in which poverty and inequality can be reduced. The linkage here is increased access to decent jobs in a formalised and non-formalised labour markets especially in developing countries like Uganda is key to improving living conditions and it is a critical element in achieving sustainable development

Various renditions of the concept inclusive development have become part of development policy making and programming. Whereas inclusion is taking over the discourse of development, the exact meaning and operationalisation of this concept are not entirely clear. For development organisations this concept can play out in various ways. Rather than focusing on the word of inclusion, this blog focuses on the work of inclusion. The aim of this blog is to show a concrete example of inclusion in practice, embodied by the Inclusion officer at The Uganda National Apiculture Development Organisation (TUNADO), a member-based national apex organisation for apiculture in Uganda. Beekeeping, they argue, should be an accessible option for everyone because anyone can do beekeeping. A permanently staffed Inclusion Officer is in place to ensure that this focus is observed. This blog asks the questions what is inclusion in the apiculture sector on top of other aspects of value chain development? How does the inclusion officer work, and how does TUNADO facilitate the inclusion officer and inclusion in practice?

Challenges for beekeepers

Before understanding vulnerabilities and barriers to inclusion for various social groups, the general challenges of the beekeeping sector should be understood. Common challenges in the apiculture value chain exist for all its actors. For more on the apiculture value chain in general, read this blog. The challenges stem from structural aspects of the value chain, such as its fragmentation, and the links to markets that are often not optimal. These challenges apply – although unequally – to most beekeepers starting their apiaries in Uganda, and to most of them who have managed to expand beyond critical mass of 15 beehives (with 10 colonies). Besides these structural challenges, beekeeping itself for smallholders or beginning beekeepers can become difficult when faced with practical problems. For example, due to the responsibility the beekeeper has for their bees, which are considered lethal livestock in Uganda, a fence is necessary to avoid accidents with cattle or neighbours which can result in injuries and sometimes casualties on one side, and heavy legal repercussions on the other. The fence may also prevent neighbours from stealing honey. If one has a plot of land and a few hives at their disposal, getting bees into them requires technical know-how and experience. A beehive without bees is as good as not having one. The next step is apiary management and ultimately harvesting. To safely monitor and harvest the colonised beehives, one needs equipment such as a bee suit with gloves and gumboots, a bee brush, harvesting knife, hive tool, smoker and airtight buckets.

Beekeeping can be profitable from 15 colonised hives onwards. Including the equipment, the beekeeper would have to invest an estimated (15 traditional beehives*30,000 + bee suit 150,000 + smoker 50,000 + boots 25,000 + gloves 30,000 + bucket 25,000 =) 430,000 Ugandan Shillings based on World of Bees prices (which is about 122 U$D in January 2022). To maintain and protect the apiary, a fence should also be factored in. The beehives can be made locally, which can cause the price to go down, or they can be produced by beekeepers themselves. Some of the equipment is available through the Rural Transformation Centres (one-stop-shops for beekeeping training, equipment and inputs connected to TUNADO) for communal use. This means that some of the initial investments could go down or could be postponed.

As most informal smallholder rural agricultural entrepreneurs, beekeepers face a structural challenge to gain access to finance, in the form of credit or loans from formal sources. The Microfinance institutions are not geared towards the apiculture sector. On top of that, beekeepers are not able to show records and present collateral to meet the KYC requirements. This means that even though investments may be small at first, a starting beekeeper may struggle to meet them without external credit.

Inclusion analysis in the apiculture sector

In organising a historically fragmented sector with little organisation and mostly smallholders, TUNADO identifies 6 social categories facing extra challenges towards participation in apiculture. People falling in one or more of these categories face sometimes overlapping challenges to partake in activities along the apiculture value chain, be it in beekeeping (primary production), processing and packaging, marketing, or trading. First, youth are finding access to the required assets and capital (land, credit) hard. Often youth do not own or access land and do not have the resources or independence to start up beekeeping. Secondly, women face these challenges more disproportionally, adding other social and traditional expectations of care work, marriage, and mobility to their situations. According to a survey conducted by Woord en Daad PMEL Expert in Uganda in December 2021 under Human Centred Design technical support by Palladium, female youth find it harder to get land compared to their male counterparts due to patriarchal nature of Ugandan society. Thirdly, persons with disabilities face similar constraints, e.g., physical obstacles to persons with vision impairment (PwVI) and persons with hearing impairment (PWHI), who need extra adaptations in their communication and apiary work sites.

Fourthly, there are ethnic minorities that face peculiar vulnerabilities due to historical processes of marginalisation, such as the Batwa people in the west, and the Ik people in Karamoja close to Kenya. The Batwa, historically forest dwellers, have been evicted from their ancestral grounds and find hardships in securing alternative livelihoods. The Ik, who are situated between cattle keepers of Turkana and the Karamojong close to the Kenyan border, face cattle raids from both sides and are being pushed out. Refugees, of which there are many in Uganda, form the fifth vulnerable group. The refugees are located mostly in refugee settlements near the Sudanese and Congolese borders and face multiple barriers to engage in beekeeping, e.g., they are congested in the settlements and have small plots (3 x 3m) which makes primary production difficult, lack skills and there exists mistrust between them and host communities, which makes integration into host community apiary groups difficult.

Uganda employs a national poverty index that identifies regions with higher levels of poverty to guide policy and programs of poverty alleviation. This method of poverty targeting may overlook people living in poverty in regions that are not considered to be the poorest. TUNADO calls these groups that miss the boat the active poor; these face constraints in levels of education, skills, and access to land, finance, and assets, and require a tailored and intensive supportive approach to set up a business in beekeeping. This is the sixth and final category TUNADO uses for its focus on inclusion. These categories are not mutually exclusive, as one person may fall in one or several of these categories and face some or all challenges above depending on their personal context and environment.

The inclusion officer

The above mentioned social categories add their own challenges on top of the more general access to finance, land, and knowledge barriers for rural smallholders to successful beekeeping. This also shows that inclusion is highly context sensitive and depends on an interplay of factors. The inclusion officer, and TUNADO in a broader way, addresses these vulnerabilities and challenges. This function originated from a pilot project to improve the inclusion of persons with disabilities in beekeeping: a project officer with a background in sign language interpretation was recruited to facilitate the process with persons with hearing impairment and persons with vision impairment that are keeping bees in Gulu and Jinja. TUNADO realised that a focus on inclusion should transcend project level and be applied programme wide to increase participation of excluded and marginalised categories of people. After this project was successful, it was considered as a pilot for a more programmatic approach to inclusion. The project officer was incorporated in the permanent staff and involved in other projects as inclusion officer. She has been involved in a scoping study on inclusion for the five-year strategic plan of 2022-2027 and among other things worked to improve accessibility of the construction of a new building that will host TUNADO office, an export hub, a demo apiary, and a beekeeping museum. The inclusion officer is mandated by the organisation to address issues of inclusion and propose changes. One of the roles is to ensure that inclusion policy is being implemented according to an implementation framework, while addressing issues of inclusion in interventions to come.

The effectiveness of the work of this inclusion officer depends on several factors. First, the experience, background and seniority of the person fulfilling the function matters greatly for its effectiveness. Secondly, the policies and implementation roadmaps and timelines in place within the organisation provide the inclusion officer with the necessary tools. These policies and implementation guidelines should be concrete, workable, specific, and realistic. Lastly, the embeddedness of the position within the organisation and the commitment to inclusion as a core value play a role. Arguably, an organisation that does not consider inclusion as a core value is less likely to employ an inclusion officer.

Inclusion as a strategic core value

On a strategic level, TUNADO has committed to inclusion in several ways. A gender policy guides on the budget commitments towards gender inclusion (30% of the annual budget), same with disability policy (2%). All projects and programmes have mainstreamed the Gender Action Learning System methodology, which is a gender empowerment methodology that is based on dialogues in communities and households that are used as a negotiation tool for women inclusion. Staff and board have been trained in disability and gender inclusion within the projects and in the organisation. A gender analysis for the honey value chain was conducted to guide programming and it will continue to be updated. Programmes and projects are directed to spend effort to bridge the gap for persons with specific challenges due to intersecting (2) characteristics. In practice this means monitoring the quantitative and qualitative indicators of inclusion, such as proportion of women in beekeeping, differences in production, access to equipment, capital, and assets, and so forth.

Whereas gender parity is a common first approach on the inclusion front, a wider focus on intersections of multiple characteristics that pose particular challenges is necessary. The mechanisms behind inclusion and exclusion play a central role in inclusion policy as input for analyses and policies. However, without the organisational and strategic backing of principles of inclusion, it is very difficult to put it into concrete practices. It is necessary to weave inclusion into the organisational structure with internal policies, embedded in concrete implementation guides that set clear and realistic goals, combined with staff training and monitoring.


This blog is a cooperation between INCLUDE, Woord en Daad, TRIAS and TUNADO. The three organisations implement Trees x Bees in Uganda, as a consortium under the Challenge Fund for Youth Employment. This project seeks to connect coffee farming, beekeeping and tree planting for pollination, honey production, reforestation, and climate resilient agroforestry.


(1) Reinders, S., Dekker, M., van Kesteren, F., Oudenhuijsen, L., 2019. Inclusive Development in Africa (Synthesis report), Synthesis Report series. INCLUDE Knowledge Platform, Leiden, the Netherlands.

(2) Intersectionality refers to each one’s unique experience due to anything that affects marginalisation in their lifetimes, which can be gender, family composition, assets, and other individual and social characteristics. First coined by Prof. Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 (Crenshaw, 1991).

Het bericht Hive-minded: what’s working for inclusion in apiculture? verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Identifying Economic Sectors to Create Employment for Youth in Africa: key findings from selected country cases

14. März 2022 - 14:04

Growth Sectors for Youth Employment (GSYE) is an African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) collaborative research that is seeking to provide research evidence on which economic sectors have the potential to significantly create employment for youth. The project was commissioned by INCLUDE, with support from the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The project is implemented by AERC in conjunction with the Economic Research Forum (ERF) and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). The project aims to provide research evidence on the economic sectors with the highest multipliers and potential to create employment opportunities for young people in the continent.

The objectives of the project are to:

  1. identify promising economic sectors or value chains for job creation for young men and women in selected countries in Africa
  2. identify the country-specific conditions needed for the local and foreign private sectors to invest in these sectors or value chains
  3. identify the country-specific actors that are needed to create these conditions that enhance or reduce investment security
  4. identify ways to promote equal access and opportunity for youth to these new sources of work and income, addressing inequality related to gender, socio-economic background, and place of residence

The project is implemented in several phases. The first phase involved the drafting of framework papers needed to draw some general characteristics on decent employment for Africa’s youth. The second phase involved drafting of nine country case studies: Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tunisia and Uganda. Country case studies will help in the identification and explanation of nuances and peculiarities of these countries. During the final-review workshop held in late January 2022, the country case studies researchers presented their final draft reports.

The following are some key findings from selected country case studies:

Tunisia; growth in value-added per-capita between 2011 and 2018 was “jobless growth” in the sense that growth was not matched by satisfactory job creation. Job creation was driven by increased productivity and participation rate rather than an increase in the employment rate. A 1% increase in industrial output generates twice as much employment as the services sector for the people of the working-age, while a 1% increase in service output generates twice as much employment as industry for youth aged between 15 to 25 years. The manufacturing sector remains trapped by a misallocation of resources in such a way that less productive firms receive a large share of resources. It is evident that the agro-food sector has the highest average of aggregate productivity. This is followed by the chemical sector while the textile and clothing sector has the lowest aggregate productivity. The within-firm and between-firm components contribute negatively to labour productivity growth. This shows a weakness in firms improving performance. The negative contribution of the between-firm effects suggests a lack of reallocation of resources from the less to more productive firms.

Uganda; an increase in demand worth 10 billion Uganda shillings would generate 3,502 jobs in the agriculture sector, 2,291 jobs in the service sector and 2,071 jobs in the industry. For the jobs created in agriculture, 1,428 jobs are indirect jobs generated through backward and forward linkages. In general, the agriculture sector would generate more jobs for youths and women. This is followed by the service sector and lastly the industrial sector. At the sub-sector level, cash crops, agro-processing, wholesale, retail trade, tourism and transport services, would generate more jobs for the youth and women.

Nigeria; it has a comparative advantage in products such as cocoa, fuelwood, wood in the rough, leather and natural rubber. Crops, industrial and trade clusters include Kadawa tomato cluster Kano; Omor rice cluster Anambra; Computer village in Otigba (Lagos); leather tannery in Kano. Proper harnessing of the products and the various sub-sectors in which these clusters exist is likely to contribute to massive youth employment creation. Employment elasticity ranges from 0.056 to 0.734 – the highest contributor is from the financial services sector and the manufacturing sector is the least contributor to employment growth intensity. The main constraints to developing sectors with potential for job creation include access to finance, power supply, corruption, high taxation and policy inconsistency.

Kenya; agriculture, transport; trade, construction and education are sectors with the highest potential to create youth employment. Activities with high potential to create jobs include livestock, vegetables (horticulture), rice production, textile and footwear production, and hotels and restaurants. The sectors of the economy are interdependent in the sense that an expansion in one sector has backward and forward linkages with other sectors. Thus, there is the need to adopt a comprehensive multisectoral approach in job creation strategy for the country. Since economic activities vary across counties, there is need to stimulate activities where each County and economic bloc has comparative advantage to ensure sustained job creation for the youth.

Egypt; industries with an employment-generating potential for youth are agricultural, extraction and mining, manufacturing, and services activities. The highest employment multipliers in the manufacturing sector are found in the food products; basic metals; motor vehicles; paper products; non-metallic mineral products; beverages; wearing apparel; coke and refined petroleum products. Total and youth employment have positive spatial dependence. Specifically, there is a clustering of total and youth employment among governorates of the regions of Greater Cairo, the Delta, and Upper Egypt. Majority of high-ranking employment multiplier industries and feeding industries along their value chains are located in these regions, and in geographically close regions.

Ethiopia; if supply is elastic, a demand stimulus would have the highest output effect on the construction and trade sectors. This is followed by hotels, restaurants, transport, forestry, public administration and animal husbandry (cattle) and cash crops, excluding coffee, in the agriculture sectors have the highest multiplier effect. The effect on the construction and trade sectors is significantly higher than the rest – with four times larger than the median value. While the construction sector is one of the sectors with significant potential for job creation, it does not create jobs like that of manufacturing. The trade sector is not among the top sub-sectors with significant potential for job creation in the service sector either.

Senegal; the majority of jobs held by youth are concentrated in agriculture, trade and manufacturing sectors. However, most youth in these sectors work fewer hours than the norm and wish to do more, and have insufficient income inducing them to seek additional work. Less than 50% of the youth in these sectors have a regular job and benefit from a social security system as part of their employment. Youth working in the trade sector are more likely to have higher quality jobs, suggesting that the sector offers better employment opportunities for youth than other sectors. Employment support programmes allow young beneficiaries to access higher quality jobs than non-beneficiaries. These higher quality jobs are mainly in the service and industrial sectors. This attests to the precarious situation of young men and women in the labour market, and the need to increase employment support programmes to improve employability of young people in sectors offering quality jobs.

Mozambique; the period 2010 to 2018 was characterized by a fall in agricultural employment elasticity accompanied by a fall in employment. Apart from agriculture, wholesale, retail and tourism, and service sectors, other sectors registered a significant increase in employment elasticities. Manufacturing, mining, transport and communication, and civil construction have employment elasticity exceeding unity, characterized as employment generating sectors, dynamic with increasing productivity. This suggests that these sectors are potential employment generators. Thus, special attention should be accorded to these activities to promote youth employment.


Upcoming activities

During the first two weeks of March 2022, the country case studies teams will disseminate research findings in the in-country dissemination and policy dialogue workshops. Additionally, a regional policy dialogue workshop will be held on 28th March 2022 to disseminate country case studies research findings. The findings of this project will be documented in form of framework papers, country case studies papers, synthesis papers, policy briefs, working papers and in an edited volume.


Het bericht Identifying Economic Sectors to Create Employment for Youth in Africa: key findings from selected country cases verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Getting up to speed with inclusive development

4. März 2022 - 10:00
The INCLUDE team’s reading list: February 2021 About the reading list One of INCLUDE’s core beliefs is that so much knowledge already exists, it just needs guiding to the right places and the right people in order to reach its full impact for policy and, ultimately, for development. Whether you are seeking information to guide policy, embarking upon a piece of research, or simply interested in broadening your knowledge and staying updated on inclusive development in Africa, we hope this source can be a good starting point. Social Protection
  • Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19: A Real-Time Review of Country Measures (World Bank) -This “living paper” contributes to the global knowledge on how countries are responding to the pandemic by documenting real-time actions in a key area of response – that is, social protection measures planned or implemented by governments. For the purpose of this review, World Bank organized interventions by social assistance, social insurance and labour market programs. For the latter measures, World Bank deliberately focused on supply-side programs (e.g., mostly wage subsidies and other activation programs).
  • Introducing J-PAL’s new Social Protection Initiative and sector (IPA) -J-Pal has launched a brand new sector and initiative to generate rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of social protection programs and to help partners apply evidence to high-level decision-making. J-PAL will foster the generation of rigorous evidence on social protection through the new Social Protection Initiative (SPI), a collaboration with Evidence for Policy Design (EPoD) at the Harvard Kennedy School. SPI will be managed within J-PAL’s new Social Protection sector. Sector co-chairs, Rema Hanna and Ben Olken, and staff will work to identify policies effective at providing financial assistance to low-income families, insuring them against shocks, and breaking poverty traps.
  • Designing financial services and social protection programs to enhance women’s economic empowerment (IPA) -Financial inclusion and social protection programs often provide women with microcredit, savings accounts, or cash transfers as a strategy to promote women’s economic empowerment in low-resource settings alongside other economic objectives. A review of 35 randomized evaluations and quasi-experimental studies in 20 low- and middle-income countries found that access to financial resources or services did not consistently enhance women’s economic empowerment. Policymakers delivering financial inclusion and social protection programs in contexts where women lack power over household resources should consider employing design features that enhance women’s control.
  • Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (ESSP) (IFPRI) -The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (ESSP) is a collaborative program undertaken by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Policy Studies Institute (PSI). In order to support inclusive and sustainable growth and transformation in Ethiopia, the program works closely with local partners to assure that relevant research evidence is available for improved decision making and that local capacity is gradually formed so that the increasingly complex questions in Ethiopia can be tackled in a meaningful way by the relevant government institutions and other concerned local partners.
  • Making the future of African STEM female (Brookings) -Without a huge investment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, Africa will not achieve the goals the African Union has laid out in her 2063 agenda. Given the increased demand for STEM knowledge in a post-COVID world and education losses caused by the pandemic, support for girls in STEM education has never been more pressing. Indeed, the demographic makeup of girls and women in Africa must be intentionally harnessed to position Africa as the technology hub for the future.
  • The Long-Run Decline of Education Quality in the Developing World (CGD) -International organizations like the World Bank and UNESCO have declared a “learning crisis” in the developing world, with many school systems failing to reliably produce even basic literacy and numeracy skills. The Center for Global Development (CDG) uses comparable, survey-based literacy tests for repeated cross-sections of men and women born between 1950 and 2000 to study education outcomes across cohorts in 87 countries. The CDG finds that education quality, defined as literacy conditional on completing five years of schooling, stagnated or declined across the developing world over half a century, with pronounced drops in both South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Improving access to quality public education in Africa (Brookings) -On February 8, 2022, Rebecca Winthrop testified before the U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee on improving access to quality public education in Africa. Given the importance of educating Africa’s children and youth, Rebecca Winthrop would urge the committee to bolster U.S. government’s attention, funding, and support to increase access to quality education. She offers four recommendations for the committee to consider as possible ways to do this: 1. Harness the innovative capacity of African communities; 2. Support enriched teaching and learning experiences to improve foundational literacy and numeracy; 3. Increase investments in improved models of learning that prepare African youth for the future of work; 4. Lead on system transformation in the face of climate change.

  Work and income for youth and women

  •  The EU Should Build Skills in Africa, Not Just Promote Mobility (CGD) -Late in 2020, the European Union (EU) released its New Pact on Migration and Asylum. It aimed, among other things, to implement “Talent Partnerships” with African countries. These Talent Partnerships were to better link migration and skills development, a move the Center for Global Development heralded. Based on discussions with EU Commissioner for Home Affairs Ylva Johansson, and conversations at the Vienna Migration Conference, this blog outlines how the European Commission can put Talent Partnerships (that generate meaningful benefits for countries of origin, countries of destination, and migrants themselves) into practice.
  • AUC and ILO reaffirm commitment to strengthen social justice and decent work in Africa  (AU) -The African Union Commission (AUC) and International Labour Organization (ILO) have reaffirmed their cooperation and partnership by signing an agreement aimed at improving the world of work and employment in Africa. The new partnership agreement, between the AU and the ILO, was signed in a virtual ceremony on 4th of February 2022 on the margins of the 40th Ordinary Session of the African Union Executive Council, in Addis Ababa, by H.E. Minata Cessouma Samate, the African Union Commissioner for Health, Humanitarian Affairs and Social Development and Cynthia Samuel-Olonjuwon, the ILO Assistant Director-General and Regional Director for Africa.
Data and technology for development
  • The private sector must do its part on data governance in Africa (Brookings) -The last decade has seen an acceleration in the digitization of many aspects of our lives including financial services, commerce, education, and healthcare. Data gathering and exchange have accelerated alongside this swift uptake of digital engagement, and data has become the new essential commodity—with Africa as the next frontier. However, this rapid change brings along questions of data governance and privacy, especially as the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) moves forward. As the tech sector waits for regulators to catch up, individual companies can do more to protect consumers on their own.
  • Digital Technologies and Election Management in Africa’s Democratisation Process: More Technocratic than Democratic? (CODESRIA) -In this CODESRIA Working Paper, Prof. Okechukwu Obinna Ibeanu cautions that digital technologies for electoral management are more technocratic than democratic and can’t, by themselves, assure the legitimacy of outcomes. In 2019 the CODESRIA Democratic Governance Institute was held in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire from 15 July to 2 August 2019. The theme of the Institute was ‘Digital Technologies and Election Management in Africa’s Democratisation Process’. This report presents an overview, appraisal and a summary of the outcomes of the Institute, focusing on its organisation and academic programme.
Growth and transformation
  • Repurposing agricultural policies and support: Options to transform agriculture and food systems to better serve the health of people, economies, and the planet (IFPRI) -How can agricultural support policies be repurposed to make the food system deliver better outcomes? This was the broad question the World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) sought to answer in this study. The report finds that repurposing a portion of government spending on agriculture each year to develop and disseminate more emission-efficient technologies for crops and livestock could reduce overall emissions from agriculture by more than 40 percent. Meanwhile, millions of hectares of land could be restored to natural habitats. The economic payoffs to this type of repurposing would be large. Redirecting about $70 billion a year, equivalent to one per cent of global agricultural output, would yield a net benefit of over $2 trillion in 20 years.
  • Expanding African Trade to Boost Growth and Reduce Poverty (World Bank) -A new book from the World Bank, ‘Africa in the New Trade Environment: Market Access in Troubled Times’, analyzes the trade track ahead of Africa and recommends the kind of aerodynamics, tires, and engine that the region needs to succeed. The book offers a three-pronged policy approach to bolster Africa’s market access in the current global trade environment: evaluate and re-engineer trade with traditional partners, the United States (US) and the European Union (EU); strategically diversify trade with Asia, and look inward to deepen regional trade integration.
  • Greater and More Diverse Participation in Global Trade is Key to Achieving Africa’s Economic Transformation (World Bank) -African countries must expand and diversify their participation in international trade and global value chains to reduce poverty on a large scale and transform their economies, says the new World Bank book ‘Africa In the New Trade Environment: Market Access in Troubled Times’. The continent must go beyond trade in raw materials and link its production and trade to the global economy to take advantage of the unlimited demand and innovation along the supply chain.
Development cooperation
  • What a True Partnership of Equals Would Mean for the European Union and African Union (CGD) -After its cancellation in 2020, the European Union (EU)-African Union (AU) Summit began on February 17th, 2022. But much has changed in the last two years. The COVID-19 pandemic still lingers and there is a staggering need for a sustainable post-pandemic recovery plan in Africa. This recovery is hindered by increased security issues and political instability in some regions, coupled with the urgent need to tackle climate change on a continent that will be home to 2.5 billion people by 2050. Against this backdrop, this blog, written on February 15th, suggests that the Summit is an opportunity to reset the EU’s relationship with Africa as a true partnership of equals.
  • Domestic Revenue Mobilization and Debt Relief: The Lack of Any Link (CGD) -As the global financial community considers how to extend debt relief accompanied by IMF adjustment programs to vulnerable low-income countries, the issue of policy conditions for fiscal adjustment will inevitably arise. This paper considers the effectiveness of conditions related to domestic revenue mobilization (DRM) in the last systematic round of debt relief in the early 2000s Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (HIPC/MDRI). The CGD finds that debt relief had no impact on low-income countries’ DRM. Countries benefitting from debt relief had roughly the same DRM as those that did not. And DRM grew only slightly over time for both sets of countries.
Food security for marginalised groups
  • Ethiopia says food security a priority, despite Tigray famine conditions (Devex) -The African Union, which held its annual summit on February 5th and 6th, has declared this the “Year of Nutrition and Food Security.” As the country hosts of the summit, Ethiopia echoed these calls to increase access to food across the continent, releasing a statement on February 6th saying that addressing food and nutrition insecurity is “one of the priority development areas for the country.”
  • Da’aro Youth Project: supporting young asylum seekers and refugees from the Horn of Africa (PEP community) -Da’aro Youth Project was established in 2018 by members of the Eritrean community in South London and works to support young refugees and asylum seekers arriving in the UK from the Horn of Africa. The Professional Eritrean Platform spoke to Dehab Woldu (Founder and Operational Manager) to find out more.
We encourage anyone from our platform, close network and wider audience to get in touch with recommendations for this reading list and to help us with our goal of sharing and disseminating knowledge. Please mail your suggestions to with the subject “Contribution to INCLUDE reading list“.

Het bericht Getting up to speed with inclusive development verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Getting up to speed with inclusive development

31. Januar 2022 - 8:40
About the reading list One of INCLUDE’s core beliefs is that so much knowledge already exists, it just needs guiding to the right places and the right people in order to reach its full impact for policy and, ultimately, for development. Whether you are seeking information to guide policy, embarking upon a piece of research, or simply interested in broadening your knowledge and staying updated on inclusive development in Africa, we hope this source can be a good starting point.

As the new year begins, we have noticed the publication of multiple annual reports and other articles which look broadly at the most pressing issues for development this year, and suggest pathways forward for recovering from COVID-19 (both in terms of health and economy), climate change action and (re)building international relations. The status of development in Africa

  • State and Trends in Adaptation Report 2021: Africa – This report by the GCA combines in-depth analyses, case studies, and viewpoints from those on the frontlines of climate change impacts in Africa. It presents a detailed blueprint for action: offering innovative adaptation and resilience ideas, solutions, and policy recommendations. The results are clear and compelling. Adaptation measures can be enormously cost effective and have the potential to start a positively reinforcing cycle of benefits. As these measures protect people and communities from floods, droughts, and others impacts, they also help lift people out of poverty, reduce hunger and undernourishment, raise incomes and living standards, fight diseases, create jobs, reduce inequality, mitigate the risk of conflicts, and give voice to the most vulnerable. These realizable results, in turn, further increase resilience to climate impacts.
  • Global economic prospects: Sub-Saharan Africa – Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa reached an estimated 3.5 percent in 2021, supported by a rebound in commodity prices and a gradual easing of social restrictions. World Bank prediction forecast growth of 3.7 percent a year on average in 2022-23 – somewhat above last June’s projections but insufficient to reverse increases in poverty and losses in per capita income. Amplified by the pandemic, previous weakness such as vulnerabilities to climate change, poverty, food insecurity and violence weigh heavily on recoveries across the region as well.
  • The World Inequality Report 2022 – This report presents the most up-to-date synthesis of international research efforts to track global inequalities. The data and analysis presented in the report is based on the work of over a hundred researchers over four years, located across all continents and contributing to the World Inequality Database (, maintained by the World Inequality Lab. This vast network collaborates with tax authorities, statistical institutions, universities and international organizations to harmonize, analyze and disseminate comparable international inequality data.
  • Africa Growth Initiative’s top 5 figures of 2021 – Each week, the Brookings Africa Growth Initiative team highlights figures related to African economic growth and development. These include visuals from recently published reports that reveal something significant or interesting about trends on the continent. In the final “Figure of the Week” of 2021, they review the five most-read posts from this year: 1. Addressing Africa’s extreme water inequality, 2. Africa’s renewable energy potential, 3. Mobile money dominates fintech investments in Africa, 3. Industries without smokestacks in South Africa and Uganda, and 5. COVID-19 impacts on foreign direct investments in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Access to and usage of basic services
  • Educator incentives and educational triage in rural primary schools – In low-income countries, primary school student achievement is often far below grade level and dropout rates remain high. Further, some educators actively encourage weaker students to drop out before reaching the end of primary school to avoid the negative attention that a school receives when its students perform poorly on their national primary leaving exams. An experiment in rural Uganda sought to both promote learning and reduce dropout rates by offering bonus payments to grade six (P6) teachers that rewarded each teacher for the math performance of each of her students relative to comparable students in other schools. This Pay for Percentile (PFP) incentive scheme did not improve overall P6 math performance, but it did reduce dropout rates.
  • Delivering quality and affordable health services: Kenya’s road to Universal Health Coverage (UHC) – Currently ranked third in Africa in the Global Health Security (GHS) index 2021, Kenya is reported to have the best healthcare system in East Africa. The Kenyan Constitution from 2010 gave prominence to health and guaranteed the citizens the right to the highest, attainable standards of health. This article by highlights the design and success of the UHC program in Kenya, as well as the challenges it faces and recommendations for improving it further.
  • How Can We Deepen Transparency in Nigeria’s Digital Financial Services? – IPA and the Inclusion for All Initiative conducted an audit study measuring the costs of using digital financial services in Nigeria and compared those with both providers’ officially stated prices and the regulatory cap on fees set by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Their audit exercise focused on three relatively uncontroversial tenets of consumer protection: customers should have access to pricing information, pricing information should be correct, and prices should comply with government regulations. They found opportunities for improvement in each of these areas.
  • Social protection and resilience: the case of the productive safety net program in Ethiopia – Improving household resilience is becoming one of the key focus and target of social protection programs in Africa. The IFPRI used five rounds of panel data to examine rural households’ resilience outcomes associated with participation in Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP). They present five key findings, which together imply that effectively boosting household resilience may require significant transfers over multiple years, and that national safety nets programs that transfer small amounts to beneficiaries over limited time horizons may not be very effective.
The latest on COVID-19 in Africa
  •  Two years of COVID-19 in Africa: lessons for the world – In the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, Africa’s rapid and coordinated response, informed by emerging data, was remarkable. Now, in 2022, as vast vaccination campaigns have enabled the global north to gain some control over the pandemic, Africa lags behind. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed how easily international cooperation and multilateral agreements can dissolve, especially in the face of a global crisis — and just how vulnerable this dependence leaves Africa.
  • Time for Africa to future-proof, starting with COVID-19 – Wealthier countries continue to monopolise the global share of vaccines. Africa has been disproportionately affected by this vaccine nationalism. A WHO target of achieving full primary immunisation in 40% of the global population by the end of December, 2021, was reached in only seven African countries, with just under 9% of people on the continent being fully vaccinated by the end of 2021. The inequity in COVID-19 vaccine distribution is prolonging the pandemic, facilitating the emergence of new variants with potential for immune evasion, increased disease severity, and global spread. Yet, world leaders refuse to learn from experience or heed the warnings and recommendations of experts.
  • Inequality kills: The unparalleled action needed to combat unprecedented inequality in the wake of COVID-19 – The wealth of the world’s 10 richest men has doubled since the pandemic began. The incomes of 99% of humanity are worse off because of COVID-19, widening economic, gender, and racial inequalities—as well as the inequality that exists between countries. This is not by chance, but choice: “economic violence” is perpetrated when structural policy choices are made for the richest and most powerful people. This causes direct harm to us all, and to the poorest people, women and girls, and racialized groups most. But, according to this report by Oxfam Novib, we can radically redesign our economies to be centered on equality.
Governance and international relations
  • The EU-Africa Summit series – On 17th February, the long-awaited summit between the African Union (AU) and the European Union (EU), delayed since 2020, finally began. It is becoming increasingly clear that Europe’s future wellbeing will depend more and more on the future wellbeing of its closest neighbour, Africa. So, can this summit still do what it originally set out to—and what it must set a course for— and reset the EU’s relationship with Africa as a “true partnership of equals”? In this blog series, CGD colleagues present proposals on the joint priorities set out by the AU and the EU and offer commentary on whether a meaningful reconstruction of the relationships between the two continents is likely to materialise.
  • African democracy in 2022: 3 elections to watch – Over the last 12 months, Africa’s democratic trajectory has been extremely volatile, ranging from protests in Eswatini (Swaziland) demanding an end to the country’s absolute monarchy, a peaceful turnover of power in Zambia, and a military coup in Sudan that undercut the country’s fragile political transition. In 2022, developments in three key countries—Angola, Kenya, and Senegal—will provide an important bellwether for where the continent is heading. All three countries face important local and national elections. The outcome of these elections will significantly impact prospects for reversing democratic erosion, the extent to which civil society and countervailing institutions can keep leaders accountable, and the future range of tactics that incumbents employ to retain power.
  • The African Continental Free Trade Area’s impact on income and wages – On January 1, 2021 the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) went into force after a 6-month delay due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The overarching goal of the AfCFTA is to facilitate intraregional and international trade among African nations by reducing costly barriers to that trade. The World Bank estimates that the AfCFTA’s positive impact on wages for men, women, and skilled labor will be most prominent in North Africa, wage gains for unskilled workers will be highest in East Africa, and West Africa is projected to experience the weakest wage gains. However, these regional averages do mask within-region variations.
We encourage anyone from our platform, close network and wider audience to get in touch with recommendations for this reading list and to help us with our goal of sharing and disseminating knowledge. Please mail your suggestions to with the subject “Contribution to INCLUDE reading list“.

Het bericht Getting up to speed with inclusive development verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english

Flight paths of the beekeeping sector in Uganda

26. Januar 2022 - 11:27

Systemic development of the apiculture value chain is at the heart of the work of the consortium of Woord en Daad, TRIAS Uganda and The Ugandan National Apiculture Development Organisation (TUNADO) – a member-based apex organisation for apiculture in Uganda with 90,000 members nationwide at various positions in the value chain.

Approximately 1.2 million people are involved in the apiculture sector in Uganda. Besides honey, the sector produces propolis, beeswax and bee venom for cosmetic, medicinal, food and other purposes. These products are mostly produced for the internal market and largely informal export predominantly to the neighbouring countries of Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan. Much of it finds its way onto the informal market or cross-border trade through traders that buy directly.

Value addition to beehive products requires special equipment and inputs such as wax melters for beeswax products, honey settling tanks and honey extractors. Entry points in value-adding activities for newcomers without assets or specialised skills are scarce. Beekeeping itself remains the most important avenue for these entrants, which makes the most sense in rural or peri-urban settings.

Beekeeping itself can be an attractive additional source of income for youth, as starting up a beekeeping business is typically low investment, does not require much capital or land, and the time costs to benefits ratio is relatively beneficial. Women may combine it with care responsibilities or other expected roles, especially in rural households. With local means at their disposal, an entrant can construct their own hives, set up an apiary, and with some basic knowledge about bees, one can start a self-sustaining beekeeping business with 10 colonies (15 hives) or more. What is important are colonies and not so much the number of hives.

Youth and women in apiculture

Youth and women commonly face similar challenges of lack of land ownership and (modern) basic beekeeping equipment. Young women, especially, need to negotiate with their own families or their husbands’ to be allowed to use land for their apiaries, which can be a stretch as not everyone likes the prospect of stinging bees in their backyards. No land, no apiary. The transient lives of young women in rural settings – implying that they move to another homestead upon marriage – also makes families reluctant to bestow land on their female household members.

One of the components of the Trees x Bees project is that 70% of the involved youth should be female. In the pre-selection phase of the project end of 2021, the numbers were 61% female and 39% male. Coffee farmers that are youthful females are especially hard to find. In this performance indicator, some regional differences seem to matter. One aspect seems to be the image of beekeeping as an activity for old men. Another is the origin of beekeeping in honey hunting, a practice in which men would often strip naked and hunt for honey from wild beehives in trees in the night. Furthermore, in many parts of Uganda, the south-west Uganda included, it is taboo for women to climb trees, and beehives used to be placed in trees to avoid harassment from the bees for passers-by.

Another factor that greatly impacts the performance of starting beekeepers, is knowledge about beekeeping, technical assistance, and development of skills. Beekeeping supposedly does not require much work. Still, knowing the basics of apiary management such as when to harvest, what to do when black ants creep into colonies and how to ensure that an empty hive attracts a bee colony in the first place, are essential to enjoy the sweet honey. When harvested prematurely, for example, the yield and quality of honey is substandard. Learning how and when to use adequate equipment and inputs plays an additional role to demystify beekeeping for youth and women. Imagine harvesting 100 beehives without a protective suit, with (woven reed) hives that need to be replaced every three years.

The changing and increasing effects of global climate change are a major impact on the apiculture sector. Rains that were previously as predictable as clockwork are more and more unpredictable, causing droughts or floods. Crops wither causing a decline in bee forage, and drought also impacts the production of honey. The shorter rains mean farmers must resort to herbicides to clear land and plant fast maturing crops. These herbicides are a real hazard to the environment. Additionally, increasing pesticide use on crops near beehives causes colonies to become weaker as bee health is affected. While these factors pose important challenges to the sector, integrating beekeeping into other agricultural practices, such as agroforestry, planting of multipurpose/high value tree species such as cashewnut, macademia, caliandra, avocado, mango, coffee, shea and others, can become a powerful solution.

Pollination services of bees are not yet widely recognised by farmers in Uganda but showing the importance of bee pollination services for agricultural crops could drive down the use of pesticides and promote the integration of beekeeping. In several of the model beekeeping farms, this integration of several crops with beekeeping is shown to be an effective way of increasing resilience of agribusiness income to climate change-related uncertainties and seasonality of agricultural income.

Shaping the apiculture value chain

The model value chain promoted by TUNADO, Woord en Daad and TRIAS, among others, features one stop rural centres that provide a grassroot market, inputs, equipment, technical assistance, and training for beekeepers. These important nodes are named Rural Transformation Centres (RTCs). An RTC is a member of TUNADO that is either a social enterprise, an NGO, or a business that can bulk and move larger quantities of beehive products. Typically, they have their own honey processing unit (production factory), wax processor and propolis packaging (manufacturing) in-house and they protect the quality of their honey through grading systems. Besides the bulking and value addition, the RTCs deal in essential inputs and equipment such as bee suits, beehives, and in some cases bee forage plants. Value addition mostly takes place within these RTCs or by other processing enterprises.

Young apiary professionals known as Apiary Masters are employed as extension workers that cater to the beekeepers connected to the RTCs. The RTCs each have their own mechanisms of guiding starting beekeepers, but they share common features. An extension worker is giving technical extension service, assistance, and monitors the apiaries periodically, according to a bee calendar; the beekeepers organise in groups to receive skills training, borrow equipment, or help each other with their apiaries. Training and know-how of beehive- and apiary management is critical to tap into the commercial potential of beekeeping. Adequate apiary management includes the maintenance of the apiary sites, planting and conserving good plants for forage, and water, as well as checking and regulating the colonized beehives in terms of colony health and pest control and timely harvest.

The network of auxiliary beekeepers, bee champions, RTCs and Apiary Masters is used for transferring skills, equipment loaning, support, and marketing. Beekeepers are organised in small groups that allow a more efficient distribution of material and skills training, as well as internal support between group members. In some cases, these groups register as farmers’ groups to be eligible for government or other support. This structure of groups and group leaders allows the beekeepers to become reachable for support by the RTC, government officials, or companies and other NGOs.

Mr.Mathias Abokalam Evergerlist, model beekeeper, near his apiary in Abim county, Karamoja

Aspects of inclusion

Beekeeping and other positions along the apiculture value chain require preconditions for new entrants to find viable employment opportunities. Beekeeping does not require much capital investment to begin, but it does require some capital, access to land, skills, and assets to become commercially viable. Value addition in this value chain hinges more heavily on simple but specialised equipment and clean working environments. Youth, as new entrants to the apiculture value chain, may face constraints in accessing some of these requirements, especially female youths.

First and foremost, access to land is required to set up an apiary. Youths, especially females, are not usually owners of land. This necessitates negotiations with land holders in the household, family, village, or local government to achieve access to land for the establishment of an apiary. Not a lot of land is needed for a small commercial apiary, but a piece of land that can be fenced off and maintained, relatively close to the homes and a water source, is a prerequisite for successful commercial beekeeping. Lack of other assets, such as beehives and essential equipment like protective gear and airtight buckets to preserve the honey after harvest, may also pose a barrier to youth that do not have start-up capital.

Not everywhere is beekeeping seen as an appropriate livelihood, or as a money-making business. Traditionally, men were the ones hunting for honey, climbing in trees, and men of age were the ones to keep bees for their honey. The image of a beekeeper is predominantly a male one, and an older one at that. In pastoralist areas with most of the population engaged in cattle-keeping, beekeeping may interfere with grazing lands of cattle when the interaction with neighbours is not optimal, or apiaries are not fenced. Additionally, beekeepers tend to prioritise other agricultural livelihoods over investing in their apiaries, given that beekeeping is often seen as a side business. These conceptions of beekeeping are addressed by providing youth and women role models of young male and female beekeepers with a business-minded approach. In part, extension workers fulfil this role, and in part model demonstration farms with integrated apiaries are used as the venue for trainings. In these trainings, special attention is given to Persons with Disabilities (PWDs), in terms of the outlook of the apiary for Persons with Visual Impairments, and training manuals for persons with Hearing impairment.

Directions from beekeeping for other flight paths

Agriculture is the largest sector in Uganda, employing most of its population (roughly 65%) – especially labour market entrants – about 40% of youth aged 15-24 are engaged in agriculture, forestry, or fishing. Despite its size, the sector contributes about 23% to the total GDP of Uganda and 31% of export. The small-scale and informal nature of agricultural and agro-industrial enterprises is said to cause this gap between GDP and employment contribution of agriculture. The contribution and productivity of these small-scale agriculturalists can be boosted by promoting systemic change in the value chains they are involved in, meaning changing the support structures, market linkages, infrastructure and production capacity of all actors involved in beehive products. The government of Uganda has stressed the importance of the agro-industrial value chains for employment and economic value creation, promoting innovation and productive transformation that links different value chain actors. This change can set preconditions for more decent work in agriculture for youth and women entering the job market. Some lessons can be learned from the efforts to transform the apiculture sector, as mentioned above:

  • Providing examples of role models of integrative agribusinesses for youth and women and PwDs is a way to inspire business minded agriculture and more engagement from these groups. Integrative agriculture is a mitigation to climate change-related pressures on agricultural yields. Beekeeping can play a key role in this system in terms of smoothing cashflow and pollination services.
  • Long term and comprehensive approach to promoting the value chain instead of hit-n-run practices of short term, narrow focus projects mostly subsidising equipment and distorting markets
  • Opportunities differ for youth and women according to different positions in the value chain. Different assets and capital are necessary for primary production (land access, equipment, knowledge, market) than for value addition (specialised machinery, standardised processing, skills)
  • The major barriers for youth employment in an inclusive value chain are sustainable land use rights, knowledge and skills, equipment and upfront investment due to lack of access to credit, and cultural or social perceptions of agricultural livelihoods.
  • For the few people in the processing of honey and other bee products, one other major barrier is access to affordable finance to promptly buy the products from farmers during the harvest season. Many also lack the entrepreneurial skills and financial literacy to make bankable business proposals.

About this Blog This blog is a cooperation between INCLUDE, Woord en Daad, TRIAS and TUNADO. The three organisations implement TreesxBees in Uganda as part of the Challenge Fund for Youth Employment. This project aims to connect to a revolving Apiculture Business Fund (ABF) and link coffee farming, beekeeping and tree planting for decent employment, pollination, reforestation, and climate-resilient agroforestry. One of the components of the Challenge Fund for Youth Employment project is that 70% of the involved youth should be female. So far, the numbers are 61% female and 39% male in the pre-selection.


About the organisations TUNADO is a national member-based organisation with 90,000 members in Uganda that works with several funding- and support partners to bring apiculture in Uganda to the next level. Apart from a systemic approach, which requires a long-term vision and commitment of partners and funders, it is pioneering to make the value chain inclusive for those who may face barriers to access and benefit from economic opportunities. Most notably women, people with disabilities (PwDs) and ethnic groups that face marginalisation. Woord en Daad is a Dutch faith-based NGO that has been involved in apiculture projects in Uganda for the past 6 years, focusing on systemic change and leaving no one behind. Its mission is to see every farmer occupy a worthy place in the value chain. TRIAS is a Belgian NGO that promotes business development, entrepreneurship, and access to finance in Uganda, among other countries.

Het bericht Flight paths of the beekeeping sector in Uganda verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

Kategorien: english