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Privacy Policy

23. Mai 2018 - 12:07

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The website www.sidint.net is owned by the Society for International Development  (SID), Via degli Etruschi, 7, Cap 00185, Roma, Italy.

SID maintains this website to provide information on its publications, events and activities. Reproduction is authorised, provided that the source is acknowledged and that information are sent to info@sidint.org. However, we are not liable for the subsequent use of the information. Although the content of this website has been compiled with care, SID cannot guarantee that the published information is accurate or complete.

SID accepts no liability whatsoever for any damage, of whatever kind, arising in any way from the use of this website, including acts, omissions and/or decisions based on the aforementioned information, as well as the temporary or permanent impossibility of using the site. The information on these web pages may contain technical or typographical errors. This information may be amended or expanded at any time without prior notice. SID has no responsibility for the content of external sites, which can be accessed through links located within the www.sidint.net site provided as a simple service to network users. Nor for any other web page to which SID refers.​ The content of this website is checked as fully as possible to ensure that it is accurate and up to date.

In the event that errors or inaccuracies are nevertheless published, we cannot be held responsible. Visitors reading information provided on our website can only use such information at their own risk and under their own responsibility. Images are normally taken from Flickr under creative commons (some rights reserved)  or bought under licence from Shutterstock unless otherwise stated.

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Privacy Policy

Last updated on 23 May 2018 

Your privacy is important to us. In this policy we set out how SID collects, uses, processes and protects the data that you provide to us. We encourage you to read the policy carefully to understand our practices regarding your personal data. We will update our privacy policy from time to time. The latest version of our privacy policy can always be found on this page. As of 25 May 2018, we will keep track of the changes we make. These can be found in section 14 of our privacy policy. If you have any questions or comments regarding our privacy policy, please contact info@sidint.org

In this policy:

1. Who are we?

2. Which data protection regulations do we comply with?

3. Who deals with our data and privacy matters?

4. What data do we collect, and why? Where do we store it, and for how long? And who has access?

5. Where do we store and how do we secure your personal data?

6. Will we share your information with anyone?

7. Can you check if we hold any information on you?

8. Can you access the information we hold on you?

9. Can we change or update your information?

10. Can we remove your data from our systems?

11. Can you object to us processing your data?

12. What can you do in case your privacy rights are violated?

13. What are data breaches, and how do we deal with them?

14. Updates to our privacy policy

15. What about links to and from our site?

16. Can you contact us for more information about this privacy policy?

1. Who are we?

The Society for International Development (SID) is a registered association in Italy. Our registered address is Via degli Etruschi, 7 CAP 00185, Roma, Italia, , Fiscal Code n. 80411620588.

2. Which data protection regulations do we comply with?

Our privacy policy is in accordance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which applies to all EU member states as of 25 May 2018. The GDPR aims to better protect the personal data of all EU citizens and therefore affects all EU organisations and non-EU organisations doing business in EU countries. Regardless of whether you are an EU or a non-EU citizen: we will treat your personal data in the same, confidential manner.

3. Who deals with our data and privacy matters?

Some organisations and companies are required to appoint a Data Protection Officer. We are not. Instead, we put together a special team dealing with privacy issues. That team includes representatives from finance, management, human resouces. You can reach the team at info@sidint.org.  Our main contact person is Stefano Prato. He can be reached by telephone at +39 06 4872172.

4. What data do we collect, and why? Where do we store it, and for how long? And who has access?

We may collect and process the following data about you:

Information that you provide by filling in forms on our website (www.sidint.net). 

When you subscribe to our newsletter, we ask you for your email address, which we will use to contact you via our newsletters. After you have subscribed, you will receive an email asking you to confirm your subscription. We will store your personal data in our external email database, which is only accessible by our communications and ICT departments. Your data will be saved for a maximum period of twenty years; after that your data will be permanently deleted from our system. We lawfully process this information on the basis of consent and performance of contract; meaning you have given us permission to process this data and you have requested a service which we deliver to you. In addition, we process your information on the basis of legitimate interests pursued by SID(personalisation and general audience analysis help us deliver a better service).

When you register to our website in order to become a member of SID, we ask you for your name, last name, email address and postal address and country of residence. Country of residence is relevant as the membership fee may vary depending on whether you are based in a OECD or non OECD country. In the latter case as well as for students, fees are lower. The postal address is used to send toeachmember a print copy of the SID Journal 'Development' during the first year of membership. From the second year onwards, SID members can access the journal online and receive a print copy  only upon their request. More detailed information about SID membership conditions and benefits are available here. By becoming member of SID, your contat details will be stored in our membership database which is accessible to all SID staff members. We  use the database to invite members to renew their memebrship, and to send the SID Journal 'Development' and possible other specific publications of SID. The data we store in our contact database will be saved for a maximum period of twenty years; after that your data will be permanently deleted from our system.

Additionally we may keep your contact details in case you have been in touch with or provide your business card to our staff members, or you have attended as speaker or participant an event organized by us. We may contact you via email  for your permission to store your business contact details in our contact database. Those details may include your name, phone number, email address and organisation. Our contact database helps us store all business-related contact details of people in our network in one place. It is basically like a phonebook, which can be consulted by our staff members if they need the contact details of a specific member of our network. We also use the database to send invitation for events or specific publications to targeted groups. That database is accessible to all SID staff members. The data we store in our contact database will be saved for a maximum period of twenty years; after that your data will be permanently deleted from our system. We lawfully process this information on the basis of consent; meaning we only include your details in our database if you give us permission for that.

5. How do we secure your personal data?

In section 4 of our privacy policy we outline the places where we store your data and who has access. In all those cases, we take great care in holding your information securely. Our contact database is stored on-premise where business security measures, on-site and off-site encrypted backups and internal guidelines for staff are in place to protect your data. Other data that we collect from you may be transferred to and stored in external systems, some of which are outside the European Economic Area (EEA). Examples are our email database (CiviCRM), email marketing campaign system (MAILCHIMP), our social media platforms, our website content management system. These are all GDPR-compliant. By submitting your personal data, you agree to this transfer, storing or processing. We will take all steps necessary to ensure that your data is treated securely and in accordance with this privacy policy. Please note that transmission of information via the internet is never completely secure. Although we will do our best to protect your personal data, we cannot guarantee the security of your data transmitted to the sites where we host your data – so any transmission is at your own risk. Once we have received your information, strict procedures and security features are in place to prevent unauthorised access.

6. Will you share my information with other parties?

We do not share your personal information with our partners, funders or third parties – unless we have your explicit permission or disclosure is required by law.  In some cases, we may use third parties to process your information. On these occasions, we will require that these third parties comply strictly with our policy and will prohibit the use of your personal information for their own business purposes.

7. Can you check if we hold any information on you?

Yes, you can. If you want to know whether we hold any information on you, please email us at info@sidint.org.

8. Can you get a copy of the information we hold on you?

Yes, you can. You can request access to the information we hold on you by emailing info@sidint.org. We will then submit a full copy of your details to the email address you provide to us within 30 days after your request. You may also ask us to send a copy of those details to another party. In both cases, no fees will be charged to you. If you are subscribed to one or more of our newsletters, you can view your subscription details by clicking the link at the bottom of any of the newsletter issues you have received from us.

9. Can we change or update your information?

Yes, of course. If any information we hold on you is incomplete or incorrect, please inform us by contacting info@sidint.org.

10. Can we remove your data from our systems?

Yes, you have the right to be removed from our data systems – unless we are required by law to keep some of your data. For example: we may be legally obliged to keep personal data relating to tax matters. If you want to be removed from our systems, please contact us at info@sidint.org. We will answer your request for removal within 30 days after you have contacted us. Please note that we will take utmost care of deleting your details everywhere, but that we may need to keep some of your data in (parts of) our systems if we are legally obliged to or if other legal grounds apply, such as legitimate interests.

11. Can you object to us processing your data?

Yes, you can. If you feel our grounds for processing your data are not legitimate, you have the right to object. You can contact us at info@sidint.org.

12. What can you do in case your privacy rights are violated?

If you feel we do not respect your privacy rights, please contact us at info@sidint.org. If we haven’t adequately addressed your request to respect your privacy rights, or if you become aware that there is a data breach (see section 13) on our end, you may notify the Italian Data Protection Authority or the data protection authority in your country. In case of a data breach, we would of course be happy if you would notify us too, by contacting info@sidint.org.

13. What are data breaches, and how do we deal with them?

A data breach is an incident where the confidentiality, integrity or availability of personal data has or may have been compromised. If we encounter a data breach on our end that poses a risk to the personal data we store, we must notify the Italian Data Protection Authority within 72 hours of becoming aware of the data breach. In case the data breach poses a serious threat to the safety of your personal data, we will notify you too – provided the contact details we hold on you are correct and up-to-date.

14. Can you see the updates of our privacy policy?

Yes, you can. Any changes we may make to our privacy policy after 25 May 2018 will be posted here. So far, no changes have been made to latest version version 1.1 of our privacy policy (dated 23 May 2018). Unless we make fundamental changes, we reserve the right to change our privacy policy without prior notice.

15. What about links to and from our site?

On our website (www.sidint.net) you may find links to other websites, or you may have been referred to our website via another website. Please note that these websites have their own privacy policies and that we do not accept any responsibility or liability for these policies. We recommend you to check the privacy policies of these website before you submit any personal data on those websites.

16. Can I contact you for more information about this privacy policy?

Of course. If you have any questions or comments regarding our privacy policy, please contact info@sidint.org or call us at +39064872172Imprint

 

Imprint - Legal Address

Society for International Development (SID), Via degli Etruschi, 7, CAP 00185, Rome, Italy

Tel: (+39) 064872172 | Fax: (+39) 064872170 |info@sidint.org

Fiscal Code: 80411620588

Register of Associations: n.282 1.978

Managing Director, International Secretariat: Stefano Prato

President, International Governing Council: Larry Cooley

 

 

The Robot, Unemployment and Immigrants

20. März 2018 - 18:35

ROME, Feb 19 2018  -Since a few days, Amazon has started Amazon Go. The idea is simple: a shop where you go in, take whatever you want from the shelves, and the cost goes automatically to a magnetic card that you carry. Going out, you swipe the card, which goes to your bank account or to a credit card, and that it is. No ques, no cashiers, fast and easy. The first shop, in Seattle, has a roaring success. Nobody is in charge with restocking the items. An automatic system does that. And soon two robots will replace the items on the shelves, now done by two employees. Even the cleaning of the floor is being done by a robot. The goal is to have a totally automatic shop, where no human can make mistakes, get ill, go on strike, take holidays, or bring into the work personal problems.

The American petrol industry calculates that will reduce within three years the staff required at each well, from 20 to five. Small hotels within three years will have a fully automated reception. You will arrive, swipe your credit card, a key for your room will come out, and you are done. If you need anything, you call a central office, where people will answer your questions and do what all the eliminated receptionists were doing. We are already accustomed to automated telephone for bookings and reservations: and to do ourselves tasks at an airport which were done before by clerks. Immigration officers will be reduced to a small team, which will intervene only if called by the immigration’s machines. Contrary to what we think, self-driving vehicle are coming fast: car makers think they will be on the market by 2021.

In the United States, according to ABI research institute, the number of industrial robots will jump nearly 300 percent, in less than a decade. And the National Economic Research Bureau, found out that for every industrial robot introduced unto the workforce, six jobs are eliminated. After the auto industry, the strongest user is the pharmaceutical sector. Robots can perform toxic operation, without any protection.

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), released a “policy brief”, indicating what would bring this robot revolution, in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. “If robots are considered a form of capital that is a close substitute for low-skilled jobs, then their growing use reduces the share of human labour in production costs. Adverse effects for developing countries may be significant” the report states. In May 2016, the World Bank’s Digital Dividend Report, calculated that the substitution with robots of low-skilled workers, in developing countries, concerned two thirds if the jobs. China is going to be the biggest user of robots. The large reserve of cheap labour, coming from the rural area, is dwindling. China plans to become a high technology world leader. The time of cheap imitations is gone. Now China registers more patents than US. Foxconn, a large industrial producer, reduced, last year, its employ strength, from 110.000 to 50.000 in Kunshan, as an example, thanks to the introductions of robots.

The economists call this wave of automatization, the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The first started, at the end of the 18thcentury, with the introduction of machines to do the handicraft work, like in textiles. Its impact become visible In 1811, when the followers of a fictional Ned Ludd started to destroy textile equipment, because it left jobless thousands of individual weavers (who become the workers of the factories).  The second industrial revolution was in the middle of the same century, when science was applied to production, creating engines and other inventions, creating the real Industrial Revolution. That meant rural populations migrating to towns, to work in the factories. The Third revolution, in the middle of last century, is considered to be the introduction of the Net, which changed again the forms of production. Gone where the jobs of secretaries in companies, the job of Lino typist in newspapers, of accounting, in documentation, libraries, archives and other hundreds of professions made obsolete by the Net.

We see in our daily life, the Fourth Industrial Revolution. But is like climate. We all know.  We have all the data, every year the climate change is in front of our eyes: more hurricanes, glaciers disappearing, extreme weather, record hot summer since recording of temperatures.  Yet, the Paris Conference in Climate Change, is now geared to produce an increase of 3 grade centigrade, when it is a scientific unanimous assumption   that to go over 1.5 centigrade would be extremely dangerous. We even have a President of the United States, who withdrew from a non-binding Paris’ agreement, declaring that climate change is a “Chinese hoax”; and who appointed  a Director of the Environmental Protection Agency, Scott Pruitt, who says that global warming is “positive”.Is like  to put Dracula in charge of a blood bank.

The political approach to automation is similar, The World Economic Forum of Davos of 2016 was dedicated to the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The founder and director of the Forum, the economist Klaus Schwalb, even took to the effort of writing a book on the subject, for the conference:  a book in which he expresses his concern. Previous industrial revolutions liberated humankind from animal power, made mass production possible and brought digital capabilities to billions of people. This Fourth Industrial Revolution is, however, fundamentally different. It is characterized by a range of new technologies that are fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, impacting all disciplines, economies and industries, and even challenging ideas about what it means to be human. We need to take a concerted approach in the world, to make the positive impacts overriding the negative ones. The theme was practically ignored at Davos 2016, because politicians discuss now only themes at a short term: what has to be treated during an electoral period. In particular, Schwab called for leaders and citizens to “together shape a future that works for all by putting people first, empowering them and constantly reminding ourselves that all of these new technologies are first and foremost tools made by people for people. “Clearly, that goes against the tide of nationalism, the new vision for the US, India, Japan, China, Philippines, Hungary, Poland, Great Britain, Turkey and so on.

Well, like it or not, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is here. Today automatization accounts already for the 17% of production and services. It will account for 40% in 15 yes, according to the World Bank projections. But we should also take into account the surprising seed of development of the Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals. We have already robots which can be reprogrammed, and change their functions. We have no space here to look into the vitally important relation between AI and societies. Suffice to say that the most vibrant debate today is how our economy is mutating into an economy of algorithms and data and how this is impacting politics. The Austrian economist and thinker Karl Polany, saw all this coming, when he made a simple observation: capitalism, without controls and regulations, does not create a market economy, but a market society where whatever is necessary for survival has a price, and that is submitted to the laws of the market. In that kind of society, the state has no alternative, but to sustain the system with laws, courts and police who protect private property, to secure the good functioning of the market. The explosion of social injustice, the privatization of common goods, the fiscal support to the richest, are all consequences of Polany analysis. Add to this how monopolizations of data in a few giant companies, like Facebook or Amazon, and their impact in the social, cultural and economic sphere, and you can see where we are going. We have become data ourselves, and we are on the market. The 4thIndustrial revolution will further reduce the centrality of the human, who was before the centre of society, and has already been substituted by the market, since the fall of the Berlin Wall…

All his opens another crucial debate, for which we have no space either. Labour was considered an important factor of cost in production. And it was how much the workers had rights to the resulting benefits, that sparked the creation of trade unions, the modern left, and the adoption of universal values, like social justice, transparency, participation, basis of the modern international relations. The machine’s relations with the distribution of the benefits of production, has inspired several thinkers, philosophers and economists over the last centuries. It was generally assumed that a time would come, in which machines would eventually do all the production, and humankind would be free of work, maintained by the profits generated by the machines. This, of course, was more a dream than a political theory. Yet today, all managers of Artificial Intelligence and Robot’s production, maintain that the superior productivity of robots will reduce costs, therefore enabling more consummation of good and services, that will generate new jobs, who will easily absorb those displaced by the machines. The data we have do not show that at all. The Economic Report of the President of the US, say that there is an 83% chance that those who earn 20 dollars an hour, could have their job replaced by robots. This proportion goes to 31% for those who make 40 dollars per hour. The new economy is an intelligence economy, based on technical knowledge.  You have a future, if you are able to adapt to that kind of society, for which new generations are much more attuned. But what will do a taxi driver, who did not have a technical education, to recycle himself? The statistics show that today, when somebody lose his job at a certain age, if he finds a new one, it will be almost always at an inferior remuneration. So robotization will affect, above all, the lower middle class, with a new generational divide.

A number of economist and influential people, over the years have come out with the idea of a Universal Basic Income. It is time to cushion the society from tensions, instability and unemployment by giving to every citizen a fix income, so to give him a dignified life:  and by spending its UBI, he would generate wealth and increase demand, which would stimulate therefore growth, and make a society just and stable. Martin Luther King was an early proponent, like the neoliberal economist Milton Friedman. Now the billionaires from Silicon Valley, like Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, the venture capitalist Mark Andreessen, the democrat senator Bernie Sanders, have all expressed support to the idea of a UBI. And in the coming presidential American elections, a New York tech executive, will run with UBI as his political platform. He observes that Trump did particularly well in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, states which have lost four million jobs because of automatization. “Higher the concentration of robots, higher the number of disgruntled people wo vote for Trump.” He plans to cover the two trillion dollars that UBI would cost (half of the US budget), with a new Vat tax, and taxation on the companies who profit from automation. Of course, in the US the idea that people who do not work receive public money, is the closest thing to communism, and UBI faces formidable cultural obstacles. But Andrew Yang, the candidate, says we will have otherwise in a few years “riots in the streets: just think to the one million of truck drivers, who are 94% males, with an average education of high school, suddenly all jobless…”

This bring us, to conclude an article where is more what is left out that what is in, to make two political consideration and a concrete proposal, for the sake of thinking positive.

The first consideration is that Trump, and all the other politicians who want to restore a past glorious future, are totally ignoring this debate (unfortunately, is not in any political debate) To restore jobs in mines and fossils, for example ignores that the technological development has already shed many jobs, and will continue to do so.  The data of the petrol companies are definitive, So ,to rally disgruntled people, as was the case in Europe with Brexit, is a consequence of the poverty of the political debate, where traditional political parties(especially on the left),  instead of explaining clearly the world in which we are, and the one in which we are going, are trying to piggy back the feeling of the victims of the neoliberal globalization, taking often the banners of the nationalists. The coming elections in Italy are a good example. The centre-left party of Matteo Renzi looks to get the least number of votes, because of its confuse identity, which is difficult to distinguish from the other parties.

The second political consideration is that migration have become a major theme in elections. Trump was elected on a strong anti-immigrant’s platform, which continues in his government. Governments in Hungary, Austria, Poland Chekia, Slovakia, are based on refusal of immigrants. All over Europe, from the Nordic countries to France, Nederland’s and Germany, anti-immigrant feelings are conditioning the governments. In the Italian election, the old fox of Berlusconi, to take votes away from the xenophobe Salvini (who is the Italian counterpart of the international nationalist, with Putin in Europe and Trump in the world as  leaders), has promised that he will expel 600.000 immigrants,  if he wins the election. Renzi government is presenting the reduction of immigrants by sea, as one example of his good governance (little mention that this was done by distributing money to all Libyan factions and to the immigrant’ s smugglers). The fear is that immigrants are stealing jobs and resources to the legitimate European citizens. The statistics from the European Union tell us that the total number of non-EU citizens living in Europe (some for a long time), is now  35 million people. Of those about 8 million were Africans, and seven million Arabs. Those figures included also illegal immigrants. That, in a population of 400 million. All statistics point out that more than 97% of the immigrants are totally integrated, that they pay in average more taxes than the locals (of course, they worry about their future), and up now those who do not have a job are about 2.3 million people, who are still waiting about their juridical situation. There is not a single study who claims that immigrants have taken the jobs of European in any significant way. It was the same story against the entry of woman in the labour market. An increasing proportion of women have joined the labour force over the last 30 years, but these increases have not coincided with falling employment rates for men. A study on Brexit proves that immigrants helped to increase the National Gross Product, and the increase in productivity meant a global increase of employment. But we have reached a point where nobody any longer listens to facts, unless they are convenient…

And now the concrete proposal. It is clear that the real threat to employment for the large majority of citizens comes from robotization, not immigration. No employed person has been fired to be substituted by an immigrant, unless we talk of non-qualified jobs, that Europeans do not want anyhow. Truck drivers, taxi drivers, bus drivers, school drivers, to take the most imminent example, do not fear immigration for their job. Well, in very few years, their job will become obsolete, and there will be no plans or preparation for that. When the problem will blow up, politics will start to look at it. M<y be would be a more responsible thing to do, that instead of stoking fear with populism and xenophobia, we start to face the real problems that our society is facing: automatization. And here is a simple proposal: somebody who takes a robot, is making money because of its superior productivity, and he is firing somebody. He is therefore, after having paid the robot during usually a couple of years, have a 100 per cent benefit from the firing of a human. Well, he will not have 100%, but a 60%, because he will continue to pay the social costs of the human fired:  its pension, taxes and health insurance.

That is not as costly as the UBI, is easy to organize and administer, and will be a way to realize partly the old utopian dream: that machines work for humankind. Can we start a political debate?

* The article first appeared on Other News

Photo: Giant Robot by Harvey Finch/Flickr

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