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C20 Urges Collaboration between G20 & Civil Society to Develop Data Protection System

#C20 18 - 1. August 2022 - 8:04

C20 PRESS RELEASE ON 3RD DEWG MEETING

Jakarta, 25 July 2022 – The G20 Digital Economy Working Group (DEWG) recently held its 3rd Meeting on July 20-21, 2022 in Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara. The meeting discussed DEWG’s 2nd and 3rd priority issues, namely Digital Skills and Digital Literacy, Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT) and Cross-Border Data Flow (CBDF). Furthermore, the meeting was expected to discuss 3 deliverables: firstly, Recommendations and Policies to Increase Involvement of Vulnerable Group in the Digital Economy, secondly, G20 Toolkit on Digital Skills and Digital Literacy and Workshops, and lastly, Summary of Practices and Policies on Advanced Digital Skills and Digital Literacy.

First and foremost, The C20 Working Group on Education, Digitalization, and Civic Space (EDCWG) applaud several crucial statements issued by the DEWG during the 3rd Meeting. First, the importance of empowering small and medium enterprises to reap the benefits of the digital economy, second, the urgent need to address global data governance issues, including digital security, third, the unequal distribution of benefits of data, and lastly, the urgent need to encourage infrastructure and digital human resources development.

While the working group note positively that the Minister Johnny G. Plate emphasized human-centered digital development as the Government’s priority agenda in the Indonesian G20 Presidency, C20 is very concerned that the 3rd DEWG meeting appears to be lacking meaningful participation and inclusivity from the affected and most vulnerable groups, and from civil society organizations that can bring their issues to the table. Whereas, DEWG statement regarding digital transformation as one of the priority issues, it is emphasized that “the discussion of the agenda for creating a more inclusive digital transformation to the world shows how significant the role of the G20 forum is to the world”.

“Therefore, we urge DEWG G20 to be more active in involving civil society organizations, including those within the C20 corridor, in a number of meeting agendas related to digital transformation issues”, said Alia Yofira The Coordinator of Sub Digitalization issue of C20.

Alia also stresses the importance of the DEWG to be more transparent on how they intend to put this vision into practice, and ensure that the planned actions are in line with international human rights standards. We understand human rights to include both civil and political rights on one side and social economic rights on the other. All these rights apply to the digital arena, including in terms of skills but also to structural issues like data governance, which should be guided not just by privacy and security concerns, but also equally economic distributional concerns.

The currently employed framework in G20 discussions of DFFT (Data Free Flow with Trust) focuses on privacy and security, which are extremely important. The C20 congratulates the G20 for adding these issues to the earlier frames of unregulated global data flows. We appeal that this current round of G20 discussions – under the chair-ship of a developing country, Indonesia which along with others have had reservations in accepting the DFFT framework at the Osaka G20 meeting as one-sided – is used to expand the notion of data related rights to also include data related economic rights, of individuals, groups, communities and workers.

“We therefore propose a new framework of ‘Data Flow with Data Rights’, where data rights include all three generations of rights; civil and political rights, social and economic rights, and collective rights, including those of communities and countries (like the right to development). Civil society groups are happy to work with the G20 to expand these ideas, so that a globally inclusive and sustainable data governance regime can enable easy global flows and exchanges of data, maximizing the gains of a global and national digital economy for all”, said Parminder Jet Singh, the Coordinator of the C20 EDCWG.

Parminder further explains that beyond economic value, cross-border data flows also have its implications towards human rights. From a development lens, the public good nature of data has implications beyond national borders. This, however, needs to be accompanied by an appropriate regulatory environment, including data protection, cybersecurity, legal accountability and interoperability between countries (WEF, 2020). Data abuse risks come not only from the private sector but also by Governments, and it affects the trust and hinder potential benefits of a data-driven digital economy.

Parminder emphasizes that the C20 urges the crucial step in integrating a human rights-based approach to cross-border data flows. Given its multidimensional nature, it is thus crucial for policymakers to strike a balance between the economic and non-economic aspects. Therefore, the G20 should take into account the UNCTAD’s 2021 Digital Economy Report that calls for a Global Data Governance Framework which takes note of both economic and non-economic aspects of data.

Moreover, the influence of big tech companies has increasingly weakened our governments to regulate data protection. Trade rules are being used to leverage this influence. Much as sectoral commercial interests have sought to use trade rules as a vehicle for expanding power and influence, we are increasingly seeing the incorporation of ‘digital chapters’ in trade agreements and proposed new international digital trade agreements, in bilateral trade deals and at the WTO.

“Therefore, the C20 urges the G20 leaders to ensure the global digital and data governance and framework should not be governed by any international trade rules (WTO or bilateral and regional FTAs). The G20 Countries should take a concrete action to develop a just global digital and data governance and framework as a global public good with an independent, representative multilateral mechanism, backed by an international treaty (or human rights treaty)”, said Parminder.

Furthermore, The C20 EDCWG are tremendously concerned with the recent development of the Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT) Regulation No. 5/2020 (MR5), which was released without adequate and meaningful public consultation. Alia explains that a number of articles in the MR5 appear to be inconsistent with international human rights instruments and could create significant negative impacts for not only the digital economy, but also the freedom of expression and human rights of people who are impacted by the MR5.

Quoting what was said by the Indonesian Minister of Communication and Information Technology during the 3rd DEWG meeting, “without proper and inclusive data governance, data utilization will not run equitably, hence it is possible that data will become a limited commodity, resulting in group-based data utilization”.

“We believe that the threat of disproportionate administrative sanctions, such as blocking digital technology companies, for poor compliance without transparency, accountability, or remedy is a significant shortfall of the spirit of “proper and inclusive data governance” itself”, said Alia
In the spirit of making the Indonesian G20 presidency more inclusive, transparent, and centered around human and their rights, C20 calls on the DEWG to actively engage in an open policy dialogue with civil society organizations, vulnerable groups and other stakeholders about the DEWG’s priority issues and how those can best be achieved consistent with international human rights instruments.

The C20 Education, Digitalization, Civic Space Working Group (EDCWG)

For media inquiries please contact:
Alia Yofira, The Coordinator of Sub-WG Digitalization (alia@elsam.or.id)
Parminder Jet Singh, The Coordinator of C20 EDCWG (parminder@itforchange.net)

About the Civil 20 (C20):
C20 is one of the official Engagement Groups of the G20. It provides a platform for Civil Society Organizations (CSO) around the world to voice the people’s aspirations with the world’s leaders in the G20. The C20 engages more than 800 civil societies representatives and networks from various countries beyond the members of the G20.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

INTERVIEW: Accessible finance is key to realizing Uganda’s potential

UN ECOSOC - 31. Juli 2022 - 6:19
Northern Uganda suffers from a development gap with the rest of the country, with high rates of poverty and unemployment. UN News spoke to Dmitry Pozhidaev, head of the UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) office in Uganda, to find out what the agency is doing to improve funding access to individuals and businesses, and put them on the right path to success.
Kategorien: english

First Person: Surviving Bali’s COVID tourism crash

UN ECOSOC - 30. Juli 2022 - 6:45
Dekha Dewandana ran a thriving ‘homestay’ tourism property in Bali, and received UN-supported training which has helped him to maintain a high standard of hospitality. When COVID-19 hit Indonesia, his business was pushed to the verge of collapse and, after a bruising two-year period, it’s now slowly recovering.
Kategorien: english

Carbon taxes, complementary policies, and the labor market

Brookings - 30. Juli 2022 - 0:25

By Ira Irina Dorband, Somik Lall, Christian Schoder

The Glasgow Climate Pact has reaffirmed efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, acknowledging the commitment of countries to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 45 percent by 2030 relative to 2010 levels. But meaningful climate action over the next few years will be difficult as the coronavirus pandemic has left many countries with high unemployment and deteriorating fiscal space. After the sharp deterioration in employment and national incomes in 2020, average employment rates have stagnated at around 4.7 percent below pre-pandemic level. Millions of people, particularly in low and lower-middle income countries, remain out of work, so poverty rates and inequality have risen. Growing fiscal deficits are forcing governments to take a hard look at how to fund spending and whether and where to spend more. There is always the underlying fear that aggressive climate action would lead to further job losses, and its economic costs could hurt living standards of low-income households.

Not all doom and gloom

But recent evidence suggests that the situation is not quite so terrible. One of the few policy proposals that gained traction in Glasgow was the “phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies,” amounting to $5.9 trillion or 6.8 percent of GDP in 2020. Rather than hurting the poor, reversing these negative prices to upstream fuel taxes is likely to be progressive—equity-increasing. Why? Because carbon-intensive industries tend to be highly capital-intensive and getting prices right will reduce demand for capital relative to labor, causing not only capital returns to fall relative to wages, but also increasing economy-wide labor demand (cf. Goulder et al. 2018, Markandya et al. 2016).

Because carbon-intensive industries tend to be highly capital-intensive and getting prices right will reduce demand for capital relative to labor, causing not only capital returns to fall relative to wages, but also increasing economy-wide labor demand.

A recent study by comparing employment multipliers of environmental and personal income taxes of a panel of 75 countries discovered expansionary employment effects of environmental tax reforms. Another study by Metcalf and Stock (2020) estimated dynamic employment effects of carbon taxes for a panel of 31 European countries, and found them to be small and insignificant.

A deep dive for a dozen Central and Eastern European countries confirms these findings in the broader literature. Following an increase in income tax revenues by 1 percent of GDP, aggregate employment decreases marginally: by 0.1 percent in one year and 0.8 percent over two years. For environmental taxes, there is no significant contractionary impact on employment. But a 1 percent of GDP increase is expected to increase employment by 0.2 percent over one year and by 1 percent over four years (Figure 1). So raising environmental taxes and using the revenues to cut income taxes should be expected to increase employment.

Figure 1. Simulating the employment effects of personal and environmental taxesFigure 1. Cumulative annual employment responses in percent to a permanent increase in the respective tax revenues by 1 percent of GDP for Central and Eastern European countries: personal income taxes (left panel) and environmental taxes (right panel). The dark (light) shaded areas are the 70 percent (90 percent) confidence bands. Source: WBG staff/ EU Regular Economic Report.

All multipliers are not made equal

How can these employment gains be explained? The size of employment multipliers of environmental or carbon taxes depend on two characteristics: how easily the country’s energy and production sectors can reduce their carbon intensity and how higher energy prices will affect labor demand. The more flexible the production structure, the easier it will be for firms to replace energy-intensive production methods with more labor-intensive ones, the stronger the demand for workers grows. In contrast, income taxes directly affect aggregate demand, indirectly increase the cost of labor, and reduce the labor share on production. Hence, the empirical analysis finds that employment multipliers tend to be negative for income taxes, but positive for carbon taxes.

Good tax design, informed by ex-ante policy analysis, can induce sectoral employment effects to be equity-enhancing, particularly when accompanied by social or labor market policies to reduce sectoral and spatial frictions. One critical lesson documented in the literature is that jobs tend to be re-allocated rather than to be lost entirely, depending strongly on policy design (e.g., Hille & Möbius 2019, Marin & Vona 2019). A recent EU Regular Economic Report shows that an economy-wide, carbon tax and subsidy reform with the revenues recycled for low-skilled labor tax cuts may, on aggregate, induce small, but economy-wide job creation, with demand for lower-wage workers disproportionately increasing (see Figure 2A, distribution across wage deciles). The underlying sectoral heterogeneity is large, with mining jobs taking the greatest hit and electricity and service-based sectors experiencing jobs growth (see Figure 2B). Empirical analyses confirm this finding of induced jobs creation in locally operating service businesses, but losses in larger, more energy-intensive manufacturing firms.

Figure 2. Growing green in Bulgaria with carbon taxes combined with lower taxes on low-skilled laborFigure 2. Labor demand changes induced by economy-wide carbon tax with low-skilled labor tax cuts. Left: A).  by region and wage decile; right: B) by sector. Source: WBG staff/EU Regular Economic Report based on multiregional input-output (MRIO) model with price-endogenous technology.

Complementary policies needed—at home and abroad

Accompanying occupational analyses shows that, while many skills can be transferrable, active labor market support, such as retraining and upskilling programs, can help facilitate sectoral reallocations of workers and avoid an increase in (already existing) skill mismatches and shortages. Social protection measures can support the regions that are experiencing concentrated job losses.

In times of economic recovery, taxes on carbon can exert less of a contractionary force on economies, presenting an efficient means to increase fiscal space and to simultaneously induce low-carbon structural change.

In times of economic recovery, taxes on carbon can exert less of a contractionary force on economies, presenting an efficient means to increase fiscal space and to simultaneously induce low-carbon structural change. In aggregate, carbon tax reforms can have net-positive employment multipliers. But the underlying sectoral heterogeneities can be large and will depend on policy design, the economic fabric of countries, integration along global value chains, and on trade partners’ climate ambition. While net job creation inherently benefits those lower-income strata that were more likely lose their job during the coronavirus pandemic, sectoral reallocation will entail various distributional and equity effects, across income groups, skill levels and occupations and spatially, between provinces and countries. Targeted social and labor market interventions can facilitate and ease the reallocations between occupations or regions and reduce frictional costs.

      
Kategorien: english

Measuring business uncertainty in developing and emerging economies

Brookings - 29. Juli 2022 - 19:27

By Edgar Avalos, José María Barrero, Elwyn Davies, Leonardo Iacovone, Jesica Torres

Uncertainty about business prospects is a fact of life for any business. When deciding whether to recruit new workers or invest in a new technology, businesses do not know if this will result in greater sales and profits, because of factors outside their control. Instead, they forecast future sales revenue (and other performance metrics) and take account of the uncertainty around those forecasts. They think through situations where things may turn out worse than the forecast, leaving them with too many workers and idle investments—or the opposite when things turn out better. Only after weighing these scenarios can firms decide whether to hire those workers or invest in that technology.

When facing high uncertainty, firms usually also have the option to wait and see to avoid making mistakes. This option is most attractive when the business environment is highly unpredictable and the decision is costly to reverse, such as when it is costly to fire workers or to resell machinery and equipment. But it is also costly in itself: waiting means delaying or cancelling some projects that would have been profitable. In theory, such delays can have major economic consequences. They might lower a country’s productivity if many businesses end up operating at a suboptimal scale or with suboptimal technology. This issue is potentially more serious in developing and emerging economies, where inadequate business investment and technology adoption often drag down productivity and economic growth.

Measuring uncertainty

In practice, however, economists struggle to understand how uncertainty impacts businesses and the macroeconomy. Part of the reason is that standard measures of uncertainty like stock market volatility and forecaster disagreement do not capture uncertainty at the level of individual businesses; that is, the uncertainty businesses managers perceive around their forecasts of future sales and performance. Only recently have researchers made substantial progress in directly measuring this subjective uncertainty at the firm-level. The state-of-the-art methodology uses surveys of business managers that elicit a series of scenarios about future own-firm outcomes and a probability for each scenario. This combination of scenarios and probabilities allows researchers to construct measures of business forecasts and business uncertainty as perceived by each individual manager.

So far, most efforts to measure subjective business forecasts and uncertainty have been limited to a handful of high-income countries like the U.S. and U.K. But new data collected by the World Bank shows that a simplified version of this state-of-the-art methodology also works well in developing and emerging economies. This is an important development because many researchers have believed that it would be difficult to conduct this sort of survey in developing countries, where businesses and their managers can be less sophisticated. The new World Bank data refute those concerns and reveal systematic differences in the way business managers perceive uncertainty across countries that have different income levels.

The data in question come from the World Bank’s Business Pulse and Enterprise Surveys, which were created to track the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the private sector. Both surveys include a module that elicits a central, optimistic, and pessimistic scenario for future own-firm sales alongside probabilities for each scenario. Over 23,000 businesses across 41 countries in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated between April 2020 and March 2022. The countries covered span a wide range of income levels, from Madagascar at the low end to Poland at the high end.

Stylized facts

As it turns out, measures of business sales forecasts and uncertainty constructed from these World Bank data capture a lot of information about the business outlook that managers are privy to, as the following stylized facts show.

First, forecasts for future sales predict actual future sales as reported in follow-up survey interviews (Figure 1). Second, managers who express higher uncertainty at the time of the forecast tend to make larger forecasting mistakes (Figure 2). This second fact says that the survey-based measure of business uncertainty captures the degree of unpredictability or volatility of firms’ sales, and mirrors similar results from survey efforts in advanced economies.

Figure 1. Sales forecasts predict actual sales

Notes: Binned scatter plot of realized sales in the follow-up interview against sales expectations (forecast) for the next six months on the horizontal axis. Realized and expected sales are both expressed relative to 2019 levels.

Figure 2. Firms reporting higher uncertainty make bigger forecasting errorsNotes: Binned scatter plot of the absolute error between sales expectations (i.e., forecasts looking six months ahead) and realized sales in the follow-up interview, against subjective uncertainty about six-months-ahead sales. Realized and expected sales are both expressed relative to 2019 levels.

Second, there are systematic differences in business uncertainty across countries at different levels of development—a new stylized fact. Businesses in poorer countries, i.e., those with lower levels of GDP per capita, tend to have higher levels of uncertainty on average (Figure 3). Prior research had shown that employment, sales, and investment data are more erratic in lower-income countries. But now it is clear this is not due to low-quality or noisy data. Instead, business managers actually perceive uncertainty to be three to six times higher in those low- and middle-income countries than in the U.S. or U.K. Thus, high levels of business uncertainty are likely to distort investment and hiring patterns in lower-income countries. This finding brings researchers one step closer to showing that, indeed, some countries might fail to develop and grow because their unpredictable business environment encourages firms to wait and see too much, rather than invest and improve their productivity.

Third, the negative relationship between uncertainty and GDP per capita is not easily explained away. It does not seem to come from differences in the composition of the business sector across countries. It is also not systematically related to the volatility of exchange rates or business cycles, which are often higher in the developing and emerging world. Instead, there appears to be a robust relationship between economic development and the amount of risk and unpredictability (i.e., uncertainty) that businesses perceive in their economic environment.

Figure 3. Employment-weighted business uncertainty declines with GDP per capita.

Notes: This figure plots employment-weighted subjective uncertainty in each country averaging across waves of the World Bank Business Pulse and Enterprise Surveys against the country’s 2019 GDP per capita on the horizontal axis. We weigh firms by employment within each country. U.K. and U.S. values taken as the averages for Apr 2020 – Dec 2021 and Apr 2020 – Mar 2022 respectively.

Policy implications

The evidence from these World Bank surveys has at least two policy implications. First, Central banks and governments in low- and middle-income countries can feasibly collect forecasting and uncertainty data as part of their routine business surveys, and thus obtain timely information about the business outlook. Such data could be a boon to policymakers and researchers interested in macroeconomic fluctuations and firm dynamics in these countries. Moreover, country-specific surveys could also collect forecasts and uncertainty data about prices, employment, or investment which could be useful for the conduct of monetary, fiscal, and business development policy.

Second, addressing and lowering the amount of uncertainty that businesses perceive through specific policy interventions could play an important role in supporting firm investment and growth in developing countries, generating positive effects for the macroeconomy. And the economic gains from making business uncertainty a higher policy priority could also bring greater stability to the political and social spheres, which in turn matter for the business environment.

      
Kategorien: english

Bureaucratic commitment to local government service: Lessons from Zambia

Brookings - 29. Juli 2022 - 18:27

By Danielle Resnick, Gilbert Siame

Globally, local governments have significant responsibilities for delivering agriculture, education, and health services, and they increasingly are forging their own strategies for tackling climate change, supporting sustainable food systems, and promoting gender equality. In fact, over the last three decades, most regions of the world have experienced progressively greater decentralization, a trend sometimes christened the “silent revolution.” Despite this broader trend, decentralization faces various challenges that hinder its intended effectiveness. For example, high turnover and low retention of skilled civil servants at the local government level undermine continuity in service provision, reduce public sector accountability to communities for project implementation, and often necessitate additional outlays in scarce resources for training new staff.  

In our new journal article, we examine the factors affecting bureaucrats’ continued commitment to local government service in Zambia, which has a long tradition of pursuing greater decentralization. At the advent of multiparty democracy in 1991, the Local Government Act was introduced and stipulated the transfer of 63 functions to the country’s district councils. Successive government administrations, spanning the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Patriotic Front (PF), and now the United Party for National Development (UPND), have prioritized enhanced decentralization in the country’s various national development strategies. In fact, the Eighth National Development Plan adopted by the National Assembly in April 2022 focuses on devolving responsibility for even more services to local authorities. Nonetheless, the country’s 116 district councils thus far have been unable to effectively fulfill all of their service delivery mandates, especially in poorly resourced rural areas. Among other factors, bureaucratic retention remains a binding constraint for improving local authorities’ capacity to deliver their assigned functions.   

To understand factors affecting bureaucratic retention, we conducted one-on-one surveys with more than 150 bureaucrats across 16 district councils in Zambia’s Central, Copperbelt, Lusaka, and Southern Provinces. The sample included councils with both high levels of poverty as well as relative affluence, urban and rural locales, and those with mayors from the two main political parties, UPND and PF. The respondents included professionals across three levels of seniority—director, midlevel, and general workers. In addition, the respondents represented six main departments within the sampled councils: town clerk’s office, finance department, human resources and administration, public health, housing and social services, and development planning. The table below provides a snapshot of the sample.  

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of survey sample 

Source: Resnick (2022) Zambia Local Bureaucrats survey, Harvard dataverse, V1. Zambia local bureaucrats survey. 

Notes: N= 153 respondents. *Ethnic majority in council (%) means that the respondent’s ethno-linguistic background corresponds to the majority ethno-linguistic group in the council where s/he served at the time of the survey.  

Organizational commitment was measured by asking respondents, “What career position do you aspire to have within five years?” All those who expressed interest in continuing in their current position, staying in local government but shifting to another area of expertise, or moving to a senior position in local government within their current area of expertise, were categorized as possessing more commitment to local government. Only 40 percent of the sample expressed such attitudes, while the remainder preferred to obtain jobs with the central government, the private sector, donor organizations, nongovernment organizations, or academia. 

We found that one of the most substantively important factors driving civil servants’ commitment to local government was mission alignment, which refers to the congruence between an employee’s values and those of the organization that they serve. Those who noted that the most enjoyable part of their position is contributing to local government and working with community members possessed greater mission alignment. In turn, those with this attitude were more than twice as likely to express interest in staying in local government for the next five years than their colleagues who expressed alternative reasons for working in local government, such as job security, prestige, salary, managing staff, or using their expertise to design programs. On the other hand, those who are better educated are four times as likely to want to leave local government service within the next five years. This dynamic is particularly worrying since it implies that local government is likely to lose those who hold the greatest qualifications even as the councils increasingly require high-skilled workers to deliver quality services. Notably, while salary arrears, non-payment of pensions, unpredictable transfer decisions, and interference by local politicians in everyday tasks are known problems for Zambia’s councils, these factors were not significantly associated with organizational commitment.  

The findings hold several policy implications. First, local government training programs need to not only focus on concrete tasks related to everyday job functions but also inculcate a sense of belonging to the local public sector. Programs that socialize new employees to the culture and mission of the organization have been successful elsewhere, such as in Egypt. Second, regular visits to the communities that bureaucrats are intended to serve could also reinforce for staff the primary purpose of their jobs. In Zambia, such visits are particularly important for better-educated civil servants who otherwise focus on office work and meetings with their superiors. Third, commitment to local public service can be enhanced through active recruitment of graduate students in the public administration, who often have a higher degree of intrinsic interest in the goals of public sector service.  

Much of the research on bureaucracy emerges from high-income countries where public servants encounter vastly different resource constraints, office settings, institutional challenges, and organizational cultures than their counterparts in low-income contexts. Far too little attention is given to the aspirations, morale, and commitment of public sector bureaucrats in developing countries, and this gap is even greater at the subnational level despite the growing trend of decentralization. Our work aims to spur additional insights on this constituency who are fundamental for implementing policies and services aimed at improving the lives of poor and vulnerable communities.  

For a more detailed discussion on this issue, see our recent journal article, “Organizational commitment in local government bureaucracies: The case of Zambia.”  

      
Kategorien: english

The power of storytelling for sustainable impact

Devex - 29. Juli 2022 - 16:15
Kategorien: english

C20 Calls on G20 Leaders to Address Multidimensional Global Crises

#C20 18 - 29. Juli 2022 - 8:37

Jakarta, Thursday (28/7) – The Civil 20 (C20) members across the world gathered in Jakarta on 27-28 July 2022 to finalize policy priorities and recommendations from C20 to G20 leaders on the current multidimensional global crises. 71 million people have fallen into extreme poverty in the first quarter of 2022, and more than 250 million people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance and protection by the end of the year. C20 urges that the multidimensional global crises should be tackled faster, fairer and in a sustainable manner. It is essential that the G20 leaders put people before politics, for economic growth is not a possible thing without actual contribution of the people’s voices, and active participation of all layers of the communities including women and persons with disabilities. C20 fruitfully discussed potential ideas and recommendations that are not only inclusive but also addressing the entirety of the current political, economic and social turmoil.

“Representing the voices of civil societies, we call on G20 leaders to make a concrete effort to provide and share resources to prevent and respond to the current crises. The G20 should increase the quantity and quality of funding for the global crises and recognize the non-state actors as humanitarian actors. It is time for the current leadership to move from ‘doing good for ourselves to ‘doing good for others’”, said Sugeng Bahagijo, Chair of C20 Indonesia in his opening remarks. 2022 has the most significant amount of people in need of humanitarian aid to date. The number still increases and it is driven by Covid-19 pandemic, natural disasters, climate crisis, social-economic injustice, social-political conflict, food and energy crisis, inflation, bad governance and others. Climate change issues have also become one of the biggest triggers of the escalating global humanitarian turmoil as we are likely to fail to meet the Paris Agreement target, which is to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees C or below. “This has impacted various aspects of our lives, including food and water insecurity which leads to malnutrition and an increased gap in various ountries; in addition, the world economy would also become 10%-18% smaller,” stated Binny
Buchori, Steering Committee of C20 Indonesia.

The food crisis which worsens the current humanitarian crisis is also triggered by spiking inflation and market speculation that has caused a significant increase in food prices. According to the latest World Bank report, more than 80 per cent of Low-Income Countries (LICs) and Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have seen inflation levels above 5%. While the G20 agenda to achieve the SDGs requires an inclusive global system that promotes economic growth and job market, financial institutions such as banks, hedge funds and traders are stealing the opportunity to squeeze the benefit of the deregulation of the global food markets which negatively affect the wealth of the low-income community. Economic and social policies during this multidimensional crisis should be centred on people, with holistic social protection packages, universal healthcare, and basic services made available across borders to reach the most vulnerable.

“We are witnessing immense suffering of the people day by day because of the prolonged pandemic, global economic and humanitarian crisis. While the C20 acknowledges G20’s effort in establishing the proposed Financial Intermediary Fund (FIF) for Pandemic Preparedness, Prevention, and Response (PPR) as a way to escape the crises, it is important for the G20 to ensure the FIF’s transparency, inclusivity, and accessibility of developing countries and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), and more importantly, to ensure that this not just a new debt.” stated Nadia Daar of Oxfam International during her session at the Plenary titled ‘Questioning the G20 Recovery Strategy When the Brink of Global Recession is Inevitable’.
The recent G20 Finance Track’s meeting in July has failed to find common ground on the Ukraine-Russia war, and G20 must realize that the inability and unwillingness of its members to address the issue will create not only a more devastating cost to human lives but also severe economic consequences and a step back in ending poverty.

Responding to the intriguing global crisis data presented by the civil society, Indonesia as the current president of G20 is proposing a strategy to strengthen the recovery and resilience required to withstand future crises in the developing countries, including the last-developed countries and small island developing states. According to Wempi Saputra, Finance Deputy of G20, solving the global crises in terms of food crises, energy crises and financial crises needs strong collaboration and participation of all stakeholders including civil society organizations, and this needs to be done through collective action. Wempi also stated his support for the Civil Society Organizations to be provided more spaces of dialogue and conversation with G20 leaders. Amalia Adininggar Widyasanti, the Deputy Minister for Economic Affairs Ministry of National Development Planning of the Republic of Indonesia, who is also part of the G20 Development Working Group, also attended and echoed the importance of strong collaboration and participation of civil society organizations in G20 dialogues.

“In these times of multiple crises, it is more important than ever for the G20 to commit to inclusive, transparent and democratic global economic governance, and reach out to the most vulnerable communities. Decisions on global issues should be made in a forum where all countries can participate on an equal footing, and that forum is the United Nations.” urged Tove Maria Ryding from the European Network on Debt and Development (EURODAD). “With the last remaining quarter before the G20 Leaders summit in November is held, the C20 strongly encourages G20 Leaders to intensify dialogues and engage with Civil Society Organizations to produce a concrete-deliverable and strong-commitment which address and provides more ambitious solutions to the current multidimensional crisis affecting people on a day-to-day basis.”, said Ah Maftuchan, C20 Sherpa.

Contact person:
Ah Maftuchan, Sherpa of C20 Indonesia
E: c20.secretariat@g20-indonesia.id

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Summary of C20 Working Group Dialogue

#C20 18 - 29. Juli 2022 - 8:10

The C20 Indonesia Policy Dialogue is a dialogue between the C20 working group (WG) and related G20 representatives in conveying their recommendations and point of views so that they become valuable inputs in the recommendations of the G20 forum in November 2022.

Download

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Crooked Crook Ltd: company registration scandals

Tax Justice Network - 28. Juli 2022 - 17:48

In this episode Taxcast host Naomi Fowler investigates the phenomenon of pop-up sweet shops on Oxford Street and the missing millions in taxes owed. The trail leads to the disgrace that is the UK's company registration process, making the UK Crime Central for any crook who comes along. It's not just the UK that exposes its citizens to risks, it hurts people across the world too.

Transcript of the show is available here: https://taxjustice.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/The-Taxcast-Transcript-July-2022.pdf 

Taxcast website with more Taxcasts: https://www.thetaxcast.com 

"It is ridiculous that you have to take more identification to get a library card to borrow a book than you do to create a limited liability company, which potentially is a cost to the taxpayer if you go bust, it is bonkers and it should stop" Graham Barrow of The Dark Money Files podcast.

"I came across a situation where for tax avoidance reasons, thousands of companies were being set up at the same time, with the same individual as the director. And in some cases there was 2000 companies being set up in the same day with the same individual as a director, and it wasn't raising any flag. You hear it all the time, you know, 'oh well, we'll learn the lessons,' but we never really seem to learn the lessons. The next scandal is a variation on a theme of the previous scandal.” ~ former tax inspector Ray McCann

"How did the UK end up at the centre of so many crimes? It's incredibly easy - go online, go onto the Companies House website - that's our company registry - pay 12 pounds and you too can have a shell company. I registered one myself - it took me less than 24 hours to receive the deeds showing I owned the company. I called it Crooked Crook Crook which I thought was pretty funny, but it turned out that actually I was being fairly unimaginative by the standards of international criminals." ~ journalist and anti-corruption campaigner, Oliver Bullough

Further reading and information here:

Kategorien: english

Exclusive interview with Ray Dalio

Devex - 28. Juli 2022 - 17:43
Kategorien: english

Kenya’s High Stakes Presidential Elections

UN Dispatch - 28. Juli 2022 - 17:10

Kenyans will go to the polls on August 9th to elect a new president. The current president, Uhuru Kenyatta, is term limited from seeking re-election and the two main candidates are both very familiar figures in Kenyan politics.

William Ruto is currently the Deputy to President Kenyatta. But the two men had a falling out and now President Kenyatta is backing Ruto’s main rival, Raila Odinga. For his part, this is Odinga’s fifth time running for president.

Kenya has a recent history of highly competitive elections that are sometimes accompanied by violence. Disputed elections in 2007 lead to over 1,000 people killed and hundreds of thousands displaced from their homes.

On the line with me to help make sense of all this political intrigue and explain the significance of these elections is Caroline Kimeu. East Africa Correspondent for The Guardian. 

 

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The post Kenya’s High Stakes Presidential Elections appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Are emerging economies already engaging with Industry 4.0 technologies?

OECD - 28. Juli 2022 - 15:30

By Michele Delera, UNU-MERIT, Carlo Pietrobelli, UNU-MERIT and University Roma Tre, and Elisa Calza and Alejandro Lavopa, UNIDO

There are many controversies among economists but one fact is undisputed: long-run productivity growth depends on the absorption and deployment of new technologies. Some estimates indicate that differences in technology diffusion account for a quarter of cross-country differences in per capita income. In the midst of a new Industrial Revolution driven by artificial intelligence, machine-to-machine communication, cloud computing and additive manufacturing, countries’ capacity to catch-up will likely depend on the speed with which they absorb these technologies. The implications for emerging economies are profound. New technologies may undermine the viability of labour-intensive development. Yet they may also open up new ways for developing countries to integrate in the global economy.

Are Industry 4.0 technologies already diffusing to lower-income economies? And, if so, what is driving their adoption?

The post Are emerging economies already engaging with Industry 4.0 technologies? appeared first on Development Matters.

Kategorien: english

Staying ahead of antimicrobial resistance

Devex - 28. Juli 2022 - 12:39
Kategorien: english

Halting the burden of STIs in Africa

Devex - 28. Juli 2022 - 12:35
Kategorien: english

Ensuring Social Protection for All

Global Policy Watch - 28. Juli 2022 - 0:24

Download pdf version

This GPW Round Up #2, Ensuring Social Protection for All, highlights the critical importance of universal social protection not only in recovering from the pandemic, but also its vital role to address pre-existing deep-seated inequalities between and within countries. It details gaps in social protection coverage and financing, especially in poor countries, and failures of the targeted, or means-tested approach, often promoted by IMF and World Bank.

The Round Up features comments and debates by Member States and CSOs, as well as research and critiques by scholars, the ILO and the (former) UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty. It links analyses to relevant recommendations of the UN Secretary-General’s report, Our Common Agenda, recommendations that are being debated by Member States as they lay out the UN agenda for the next three years.

The GPW team welcomes comments at insights@gpolicywatch.org

The post Ensuring Social Protection for All appeared first on Global Policy Watch.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

Why developing country voices will shape the global climate agenda

Brookings - 27. Juli 2022 - 20:53

By Amar Bhattacharya, Homi Kharas, John McArthur

Introduction

Despite the widespread economic strains caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and related crises, advanced economy governments have increasingly been emphasizing “green” economic growth strategies to tackle climate change while promoting both recovery and future prosperity. This is a welcome and long overdue shift. In 2020, for example, the European Union launched the European Green Deal; the U.K. government launched a Green Industrial Revolution; and the government of Japan launched a Green Growth Strategy. In the United States—the world’s largest economy—President Joe Biden took office in 2021 promising a Green New Deal. Across the OECD, these and other plans set large-scale ambitions to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while promoting jobs, innovation, and long-term economic growth.

In parallel, emerging market and developing economy (EMDE) governments have navigated their own economic and climate priorities while fending off economic crisis.1 While many of the most climate vulnerable countries have long been at the forefront of calls for global climate action, many policymakers are still looking for evidence that green transitions are cost effective, especially given the difficulties they face in accessing affordable finance and technology. As a result, most EMDEs have been unable to invest in energy and green investments to the same extent as advanced economies.2 Within developing countries, basic development tasks remain paramount, such as providing access to modern energy, improving health and education systems, building infrastructure, and growing jobs.

In the past, green-labeled policies emphasizing climate change and decarbonization have often been interpreted as luxury undertakings that lower-income economies could not immediately afford to take on. Some analysts further decry a perceived hypocrisy when advanced economies that are large-scale consumers or exporters of carbon-intensive fossil fuels seek to ban the financing of fossil fuel projects in low- and middle-income countries, placing the greatest burdens on vulnerable people, often women.3 Nonetheless, a growing range of voices within developing countries are arguing that major transitions towards sustainable energy and electrification are compatible with, and indeed central to, new development opportunities.

Download the full policy brief »

 

 

      
Kategorien: english

Trois pistes d’action concrètes pour combler les lacunes en matière de données sur le genre

OECD - 27. Juli 2022 - 15:48

Par Deirdre Appel, Community Manager, Clearinghouse, PARIS21 et Fatoumata Ngom, Analyste des politiques, OCDE, Direction de la coopération pour le développement

Il est certes possible de mobiliser davantage de financements internationaux concessionnels pour les données sur le genre jusqu'en 2030. En un mot, les budgets doivent être substantiellement augmentés et dépensés de manière efficiente, compte tenu du manque global d'investissements dans les statistiques nationales. Toutefois, pour combler le manque de financement des données sur le genre, l'Aide publique au développement (APD) n'est qu'une partie de la solution. Tous les pays ont signé l'ODD 5 et sont responsables de la réalisation de cet objectif et de ses cibles, de sorte qu’une mobilisation efficace des budgets nationaux pour les statistiques de genre sera également primordiale. Il est grand temps de passer des plaidoyers et diagnostics à des actions tangibles permettant des investissements pour une égalité des sexes informée par les données.

(This post is also available in English)

The post Trois pistes d’action concrètes pour combler les lacunes en matière de données sur le genre appeared first on Development Matters.

Kategorien: english

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