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23-01-25_Jörg Döbereiner - Our view - Biodiversität - Klima

D+C - 25. Januar 2023 - 2:00
23-01-25_Jörg Döbereiner - Our view - Biodiversität - Klima dagmar.wolf Wed, 25.01.2023 - 02:00 The world conferences of Sharm el-Sheikh and Montréal have shown once again that global crises require multilateral solutions Climate and biodiversity To protect life on earth, we must cooperate The future of humankind depends on how we treat our natural environment. The climate crisis and the erosion of ecosystems are increasingly shaping the relations between richer and poorer world regions. The issues are crucially important since our health, our food and our economies depend on them. People’s standard of life is at stake. 25.01.2023Global High-income countries Meinung SDG3 SDG12 SDG13 SDG17 Nachhaltigkeit Klima Global Governance Umweltproblematik Schwellenländer

In 1992, the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro adopted UN conventions to tackle the most important ecological problems. Progress has been slow, however. Late last year, there was a global climate summit in Sharm el-Sheikh and a global biodiversity summit in Montréal. Both came close to failure.

In Egypt, delegates ultimately decided to establish a fund to cover loss and damages in poor countries. Unfortunately, not much happened to limit global heating. The conference in Canada made history in terms of adopting the ambitious goal of declaring 30 % of land surface and 30 % of seas protected areas by 2030. So far, only 16 % of land and 8 % of the seas are conservation areas. The need for action remains great, and the stage is set for serious disputes.

Indigenous peoples and deep-rooted local communities live in many areas where nature should be protected. Their interests must not be sacrificed. In Uganda, for example, the Batwa were displaced from their rainforest habitat when the government decided to protect mountain gorillas.

It is therefore good news that the final declaration of the Montréal summit spells out repeatedly that the rights of indigenous peoples must be protected and local communities should be involved in nature protection. Where local people are acknowledged as guardians of nature and supported in that role, both humans beings and nature can thrive. This is the win-win approach.

Global success hinges on developing countries and emerging markets contributing to nature protection. After all, many important ecosystems are on their territory – just consider the rainforests of the Amazon region, the Congo basin or Indonesian islands. Humankind’s future will suffer if the countries concerned, in the pursuit of development and prosperity, destroy nature the way that high-income countries did. The implication is that it serves the latter’s self-interest to do their best in support of sustainable development in less prosperous places.

At the same time, high-income countries must achieve net-zero emissions fast. Global heating must be slowed down. Not only is the climate crisis causing serious suffering in countries that have hardly emitted greenhouse gases. It is also an important driver of the erosion of species and ecosystems.

The double crisis of climate and biodiversity shows that our fates are mutually interdependent. To protect life on earth, we must cooperate. Unfortunately, there is a lack of global solidarity. High-income countries’ lifestyles are unsustainable and cannot serve as the global model. Nonetheless, these countries are not living up to their climate-finance commitments.

Global crises require multilateral solutions. Reckless national egotism, as became evident in Russia’s attack on Ukraine, is unacceptable. Irresponsible action at the domestic level, however, can cause global harm too. Under President Jair Bolsonaro, who lost his re-election bid in Brazil last year, deforestation of the Amazon accelerated to the point that the jungle began releasing more carbon than it is absorbing. In this sense, the Bolsonaro supporters who rioted in Brasília on 8 January were attacking the global common good.

The declarations of Montréal and Sharm el-Sheikh present an opportunity to improve matters internationally. First of all, rich nations must fulfil all promises. The annual $ 20 billion they pledged to less prosperous countries for nature protection must flow reliably and transparently – and on top of previous spending commitments for climate and development purposes.

The nature protection goals for 2030 must be achieved. The natural resources our existence depends on are dwindling. We must protect them as best we can.

Jörg Döbereiner is a member of the editorial team of D+C Development and Cooperation / E+Z Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit.

Governance Sustainability Off Off Jörg Döbereiner

is a member of the editorial team of D+C Development and Cooperation/E+Z Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit.  

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Ukraine: Looking ahead with a resilient economy

GIZ Germany - 24. Januar 2023 - 16:01
: Mon, 23 Jan 2023 HH:mm:ss
Entrepreneur Olga Romanenko explains why it is important to sustain the Ukrainian economy in times of war and how the platform supports her.
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Tunisia: Next adventure – starting a business

GIZ Germany - 24. Januar 2023 - 16:01
: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 HH:mm:ss
A couple of entrepreneurs offer an alternative taste of Tunisia – combining profession with passion.
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Digital Skills for Youth Employment in Africa

INCLUDE Platform - 24. Januar 2023 - 10:11

Digitalisation and technological advancements are changing the world of work and the skills needed for employment. In Sub-Saharan Africa alone an estimated 230 million jobs will require digital skills within the next decade offering employment opportunities for its ever growing youth population. However, young people in Africa face several barriers that prevent them to obtain the types of skills required for employment. The evidence synthesis paper published by INCLUDE explores the challenges and opportunities of this digital transformation and presents recommendations of how to equip Africa’s youth for the future of work.

Digital advancements are changing the world of work. It is estimated that over the next ten years, 9 out of 10 jobs globally will require digital skills. This digital transformation has the potential to reverse the trend of ‘jobless growth’ in Africa, altering the structure of African economies by investing in digitally-enabled decent jobs. However, it is still unclear what the main challenges and opportunities are in this transformation and which skills are needed to capitalise on it. To find an answer to these questions, INCLUDE commissioned ThinkYoung, an international youth Think Tank, to critically engage with the key interrelated drivers and barriers to digital skills development and employment for young people in Africa. The conclusions are now published in the new evidence synthesis paper: Digital Skills for Youth Employment in Africa, which sheds light on the question of what digital skills actually are and what is needed to create an enabling policy environment for these.

Digital Skills

Digital skills are specific skills that enable people to use digital technology to solve real-world problems. Broadly, digital skills can be divided into ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ skills. Depending on the work, different skills or different levels of proficiency are required. These range from basic to highly specialized, where one can solve complex problems in big data analytics, computer programming, or Artificial Intelligence (AI).

  • Hard skills refer to technical knowledge and skills for using digital technology. These are skills you are trained for, they can be measured and are often job specific, like coding or using particular software.
  • Soft skills are the skills you need to navigate and learn in the digital world. They are generally taught and developed throughout the life cycle. Digital soft skills are often cognitive, social and emotional skills. They are abilities that people use for communication, creativity and problem-solving, including skills such as content creation and decision-making.

Foundational skills are a precondition for developing digital skills. These include basic skills, such as basic literacy and numeracy, and transferable skills, such as self-regulation and self-esteem, teamwork, dealing with emotions, and self-confidence. Foundational skills provide the building blocks for lifelong learning. To invest in digital skills therefore also means investing in foundational skills.

In addition to digital and foundational skills, digital literacy becomes increasingly important in the future of work. Digital literacy encompasses both the different abilities/skills and levels of proficiency that allow someone to access, use, manage and create digital information and digital tools. Digital literacy empowers people in exchange, collaboration, and participation through ICT.

Barriers to Digital Skills Development in Africa

Many African youths entering the labour market currently do not have the required skills due to the following barriers that they face:

1. Unequal access to digital infrastructure

The digital divide is the inequality between individuals with regard to digital technology. This includes the lack of digital infrastructure coupled with financial inequality (gaps in access to devices, the internet and digital technology) as well as inequality in the use of digital technology due to unequal levels of digital literacy. It is increasingly clear that marginalised groups are at risk of being left further behind. 

2. Unequal access to quality education

Primary and secondary education is paramount for developing digital skills, and for the equitable uptake of foundational digital skills and the relevant soft and hard skills. This requires qualified teachers and improved enrolment across the continent, especially in remote areas and among girls. Teaching digital skills also requires access to relevant infrastructure, equipment and connectivity in schools, with a specific focus on rural areas and marginalised groups.

Infographics by Charles Howard

3. Underdeveloped and not up-to-date TVET

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has great potential to improve digital skills uptake. It must, however, be carefully designed and targeted with direct input from employers and strong links to the job market. For example, East African countries have effectively begun to overcome TVET challenges by adopting the Regional TVET Qualifications Framework, mainstreaming regional qualifications into national policies and qualification frameworks, and improving overall TVET standards.

4. Gender barriers

Digital technology is not gender-neutral. Girls and women face more challenges in accessing and affording technology and the internet than boys and men. Social norms and gender inequality underlie gaps in digital access and use for women and girls. These norms and inequalities also present barriers to girls’ education, which in turn is essential for learning digital skills. Therefore, policies aimed at digital transformation should be inclusive and focus on gender mainstreaming in digital strategies.

Enabling Policy Environment

Digitalisation as a pathway for development and job creation has become increasingly central to African policies and programmes. The African Union Agenda 2063, for example, puts digital education as one of its key priorities. That includes universal access to quality childhood, primary, secondary, and university education, gender parity, and the strengthening of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

Following the increased attention for digital skills in policy and programming, there is a strong need for policy coherence to ensure interventions across the entire digital ecosystem address education system reform and tackle the digital divide and gender gaps. Some key recommendations for this include:

  1. Improve the quality and relevance of general education through foundational digital skills learning and access to the relevant infrastructure, devices, and connectivity.
  2. Leverage the potential of TVET by improving links with industry, targeting both high-skilled and low-skilled occupations, and harmonising curricula and qualifications. 
  3. Realise the African Union Agenda 2063 through policy coherence and mutually enforcing actions targeting the digital divide and boosting education and training, digital infrastructure, and employment. 
  4. Gender mainstream digital transformation policies to tackle the digital gender divide and ensure digital skills learning for marginalised women and girls. 
  5. Target digital skills in low productive sectors and informal work to promote digitally enabled jobs for marginalised groups and in the agricultural sector. 
  6. Secure Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) across the entire digital ecosystem to foster digital transformation and structural change.
Evidence Synthesis Paper For more information and case studies of digital skills for youth employment in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa read the full evidence synthesis paper.

Het bericht Digital Skills for Youth Employment in Africa verscheen eerst op INCLUDE Platform.

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23-01-24_Moutaz Ali - Libya - Gaddafi nostalgia

D+C - 24. Januar 2023 - 2:00
23-01-24_Moutaz Ali - Libya - Gaddafi nostalgia dagmar.wolf Tue, 24.01.2023 - 02:00 More than ten years after the collapse of the Gaddafi regime, the situation in Libya is so devastating that some long for pre-revolutionary times Libya Libya lapses into Gaddafi nostalgia When crowds flooded the streets and squares in various Libyan cities on 17 February 2011, they were demanding a better future with freedom and prosperity. Now, more than ten years after the collapse of the Gaddafi regime, it is obvious that their dreams have been turned to ashes. 24.01.2023MENA Middle East North Africa Meinung SDG1: no poverty SDG8 SDG11 SDG16 Armutsbekämpfung Bürgerkriege, Konfliktmanagement, Peacebuilding Flüchtlinge, Migration Infrastruktur Korruption Regierungsführung Sozialpolitik, Sozialentwicklung Staatszerfall Tourismus Volkswirtschaftliche Entwicklung

In the last decade, Libyans have suffered instability, civil war, uncontrolled armed militias and corrupt elite politicians failing to conduct any elections since 2014. Moreover, terror militia ISIS made the country one of their main operating centres. As if that were not enough, Libya became a main gate for smuggling hundreds of thousands of illegal migrants to Europe, where governments reacted with corresponding irritation.

Regional and international conflicts over resources in Libya also keep the country unstable. Turkey has a declared military presence in the west of Libya while Russia did the same in the east. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar have funded and established different Libyan-operated media outlets which mainly fuel violence and conflict by using hate speech and promoting bloodshed through their content. Egypt and Algeria have never been particularly helpful in stabilising their neighbour, and Tunisia has itself been hit hard economically by the conflict in Libya.

In the wake of this devastating situation, many Libyans who were dreaming of a better future are now dreaming of the past again and, despite all its hardships, are beginning to recall the Gaddafi era with nostalgia.

This nostalgia has its roots in the consecutive setbacks of the past ten years, but also in the erosion of the quality of life in all aspects such as the country’s infrastructure. “You see, we had a big airport with daily flights to dozens of destinations, including Europe. Now we have only a very small and modest one with flights to just four or five destinations,” says Libyan tour operator Fouad Fazzani.

Vast and lasting economic damage

Tripoli’s international airport was torched in 2014 in one of the heaviest battles between the military and civilians the country has ever seen. Since then, former domestic airport Mitiga is in use. The travel industry is just one of the sectors severely affected by the situation in Libya. It has lost billions of dollars, while thousands of people have lost their jobs. Fazzani adds: “A few years before the revolution, we started hosting thousands of tourists and organising trips for them all over Libya. Now, this promising industry has been destroyed due to the devastating situation the country has been facing since 2011.”

Also, most investments in real estate projects have been frozen, and already established construction sites are now abandoned. One example is the “Great Man-Made River” project, once the world’s largest drinking water pipeline project to improve water supply for the population and agriculture. The expansion of one of the last phases of the project, which was to supply the Jabal Nafusa, an arid mountainous area in the northwest of the country, was stopped after the revolution.

Libya’s financial resources are largely in the hands of corrupt politicians allied with armed militia leaders and backed by various foreign players such as Russia, Turkey, Qatar and the UAE. Many Libyans see the situation this way: They all serve their own interest, while the people struggle to feed their children.

“Other countries want to keep the situation in Libya unstable by scaring people with the militias they have established and using corrupt politicians as instruments to steal our resources on their behalf,” says Doukali Meghri, a Libyan political analyst. He adds: “That’s why those countries continue to support different conflicted local parties. They want them to continue fighting each other. Elections would not serve their interests, because everyone wants to keep their corrupt congressmen and political allies.”

Even the despair of the current situation, however, cannot disguise how much Gaddafi harmed his country and people for the 42 years of his rule. Not only has he made many enemies in the world, violated human rights and massively suppressed freedom of speech, but he has also failed to develop important sectors, such as education and health, despite the country’s enormous resources. Up to today, Libyans are suffering the consequences of this neglect.

Moutaz Ali is a journalist living in Tripoli, Libya.

Poverty Reduction Governance Off Off Moutaz Ali

last contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023 as journalist living in Tripoli, Libya.  

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Crisis in Peru

UN Dispatch - 23. Januar 2023 - 16:57

Peru is in the midst of the worst political violence experienced in the country in decades. Protests began in December following the ouster of former President Pedro Castillo. He was impeached and arrested following his effort dissolve congress in a brazen attempt to stay in power through a self-coup. Castillo’s supporters have staged large protests which were violently suppressed by security forces, resulting in dozens of deaths so far.

I spoke with reporter Simeon Tegel just as protesters were moving en masse from rural parts of the country to the capital city, Lima. Simeon Tegel is a freelance journalist and contributor to the Washington Post. We kick off discussing the scene in Lima before having a longer conversation about the causes and consequences of this mounting political crisis in Peru.

To listen to this episode on your preferred podcast player, go here

The post Crisis in Peru appeared first on UN Dispatch.

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The fourth Industrial Revolution and the reskilling challenge: a view from the Global South

OECD - 23. Januar 2023 - 15:35

By Ramiro Albrieu, Senior Researcher and Megan Ballesty, Project Co-ordinator, Center for the Implementation of Public Policies for Equity and Growth (CIPPEC-Argentina, member of the Southern Voice network)

The fourth industrial revolution is redefining the role of people in the workplace and, consequently, challenging 20th century education systems.
Many of the breakthroughs in the field of applied artificial intelligence and related technologies enable the automation of “codifiable” or repetitive tasks, representing hard-to-beat competition for workers performing them. Societies are therefore making efforts to redirect human capital investments away from learning goals associated with performing routine and repetitive tasks. Although this goal is clear, the specific features of policy frameworks to achieve it are hard to design, as they are highly context-dependent.

A few examples follow.

The post The fourth Industrial Revolution and the reskilling challenge: a view from the Global South appeared first on Development Matters.

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On the real consequences of anti-profit shifting laws: transfer pricing documentation rules and multinational firm investment

GDI Briefing - 23. Januar 2023 - 14:52

Over recent years, a growing number of countries have enacted rules that require multinational enterprises (MNEs) to document their intra-firm trade prices and show that they are set as in third-party trade. The  intention is to limit opportunities for strategic trade mis-pricing and profit shifting to lower-tax affiliates within the multinational group. Using the introduction of the French transfer price (TP) documentation requirements in 2010 as a testing ground, we show that the rules exert real effects and shape MNEs’ investment behavior. Affected businesses significantly lower their investments in France. Moreover, there are  cross-border effects on affected firms’ foreign group locations in low-tax countries, where investments equally decline. Our analyses show that investment responses are largely driven by increases in firms’ effective tax costs; there is no indication that MNEs respond to compliance burdens associated with the laws.

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On the effects of transfer pricing regulations: a developing country perspective

GDI Briefing - 23. Januar 2023 - 14:49

Multinational profit shifting by mis-pricing of intra-firm trade is a major concern for less developed countries (LDCs). Many have enacted transfer pricing rules in order to constrain this type of tax avoidance behavior.  Yet, not much is known on the rules' fiscal and economic effects. We offer a first empirical assessment, drawing on data for more than 120 low and middle income countries for a 30-year-period. Our results suggest that the introduction of transfer pricing regulations significantly increased corporate tax revenue collection in LDCs. The effect is fiscally sizable but fades out over time. We do not find indication for negative investment responses to the regulations.

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Decentralised Development Cooperation: potential and practices from an international perspective

EADI Debating Development Research - 23. Januar 2023 - 12:34
By Jorge Gutiérrez Goiria What role should municipal and regional governments play in international cooperation? For some time now, the processes and results of traditional development cooperation have been under scrutiny, and its main parameters are being reconsidered with regard to its own objectives, agents and instruments, which prove to be insufficient to face global …
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Protests in Stockholm, including Koran-burning, draw condemnation from Turkey - 23. Januar 2023 - 7:35
Protests in Stockholm on 21 January against Turkey and NATO, including the burning of a copy of the Koran, heightened tensions with Turkey at a time when the Nordic country needs Ankara's backing to gain entry to the military alliance.
Kategorien: english

23-01-23_Progress Mwareya-Zimbabwe-plastic water tanks

D+C - 23. Januar 2023 - 2:00
23-01-23_Progress Mwareya-Zimbabwe-plastic water tanks dagmar.wolf Mon, 23.01.2023 - 02:00 Large water tanks are a blessing in case of water shortage in Zimbabwe, but also have downsides Infrastructure The pros and cons of plastic water tanks So called “Jojo” tanks have become very popular in Zimbabwe. They are large-capacity vertical water storage tanks that can hold anything from 1,000 to 20,000-liter volumes. They’re handy in a country where piped water is unreliable. 23.01.2023Sub-Saharan Africa Nowadays SDG6 SDG12 Wasser Infrastruktur Umweltproblematik Stadt- und Regionalplanung

Urban residents in the last 10 years have bought Jojo tanks to insure families’, agriculture’s or small businesses’ water safety. “Jojo tank, it’s the new family car in terms of prestige,” says Brian Sako a resident of Mutare, the country’s third largest city.

Imported mainly from China and South Africa and made from plastic, they are often mounted on rooftops of family homes or in yards of factories. The water tanks cost between $ 300 to $ 1,000 depending on size and design. The advantage of the Jojo water tanks is three-fold. You capture precious and clean rainwater; you can order bulk clean water from commercial sellers and even resell some of the excess water.

Water woes in the country are common as water reserves continue to dwindle. Harare’s nearly 4 million residents have endured unreliable water supply for close to two decades. Moreover, close to 30 % of piped water is lost through illegal connections and leakages on suburban distribution pipes. “Climate change-induced droughts, brazen theft of water purification and pumping funds, an exodus of qualified engineers – all have contributed to the dire water shortages,” says Francis Moyo, a water engineer.

The excitement over the plastic water tanks has downsides too. Critics say that the Jojo water tanks in Zimbabwe are often hastily and improperly installed especially in poor city suburbs where untrained technicians do the job. It is a safety hazard to install a 10,000 litre Jojo water tank at heights and windy locations.

In some cases, the accidents of water splashes kill homeowners living next to water tanks. The rampant floods that have rocked Zimbabwe recently have also contributed to hazards. “It’s frightening,” says Gilbert Ndima in Chitungwiza, a town on the edges of the capital Harare. He recalls the deadly scene in October 2021 when a Jojo water tank collapsed and killed two children.

“It’s not the first tragedy and the last,” says Francis Moyo, a water engineer. “I see too much short cuts as installers rush for profit – never install a Jojo tank next to a room where people sleep or playground where kids gather.”

Additionally, used and worn-out plastic Jojo water tanks are clogging landfills thus adding to the urban waste pollution. Tinashe Baya, an environmentalist at the Harare Youth Clean-up Forum says: “It’s the biggest headache. Discarded Jojo water tanks that are supposed to solve urban water shortages end up piling onto landfills that clog the few precious waterways.”

Progress Mwareya is a freelance journalist based in east Zimbabwe.

Governance Off Off Progress Mwareya

contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023 as a freelance journalist based in east Zimbabwe.  

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23-01-22_Frank Swiaczny_Sonja Haug_Susanne Schmid_Sabrina Gabel - Africa - dempgraphic dividend - box

D+C - 22. Januar 2023 - 2:00
23-01-22_Frank Swiaczny_Sonja Haug_Susanne Schmid_Sabrina Gabel - Africa - dempgraphic dividend - box dagmar.wolf Sun, 22.01.2023 - 02:00 Covid-19 poses a threat to sustainable development efforts Covid-19 impacts How the pandemic promotes inequality The far-reaching impacts of Covid-19 pose a threat to sustainable development efforts across the African continent. With the exception of Egypt, no African country is currently set to achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for education. 22.01.2023Global Hintergrund SDG1: no poverty SDG8 Bevölkerung Familienplanung Bildung Ausbildung Kinder Arbeit Volkswirtschaftliche Entwicklung Armutsbekämpfung Entwicklungspolitik Entwicklungsstrategien Menschenrechte Nachhaltigkeit

The far-reaching impacts of Covid-19 pose a threat to sustainable development efforts across the African continent. With the exception of Egypt, no African country is currently set to achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for education.

During school closures due to the pandemic, fewer girls than boys had access to digital technology for learning. And afterwards, fewer girls than boys went back to school. Gender-based violence increased sharply during the pandemic. Less access to contraception, family planning and education pushes young women back into traditional patterns, which makes for more early pregnancies.

In the future, three quarters of the global increase in the working-age population will be registered on the African continent. It is estimated that over 800 million more jobs will need to be created by 2050 in Africa alone – not counting the innumerable jobs lost due to the pandemic.

But it is not enough just to create a particular number of employment opportunities; attention also needs to be paid to the quality and social inclusiveness of the jobs on offer. Tensions and conflicts, exacerbated by the impacts of Covid-19, make it difficult to realise a sustainable “demographic dividend”.

Frank Swiaczny Sonja Haug Susanne Schmid Sabrina Gabel 20.01.2023 Benefiting from falling numbers of children

Matters are made worse by a whole range of increasingly serious environmental problems due to climate change, such as the growing incidence of droughts and floods. Rich industrialised regions like the EU, which have announced to invest in sustainable growth in Africa, should therefore put a special focus on family planning, empowerment of women and women’s access to education and sustainable jobs.

Frank Swiaczny is a researcher at the Federal Institute for Population Research in Wiesbaden.

Sonja Haug is Professor of Empirical Social Research at Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg and a spokesperson for the “Migration, Integration, World Population” working group of the German Society for Demography (DGD).

Susanne Schmid is head of the “Social Development, Migration, Integration” department of the Academy for Politics and Contemporary Affairs at the Hanns-Seidel-Foundation and spokesperson for the “Migration, Integration, World Population” working group of the German Society for Demography (DGD).

Sabrina Gabel is working for the German development agency GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammen­arbeit). Until recently, she was part of a project focused on population dynamics, sexual and reproductive health and rights. The article reflects the author’s personal opinion.

Poverty Reduction Sustainability Gender Equality Off Off Frank Swiaczny

contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023 as a researcher at the Federal Institute for Population Research in Wiesbaden, Germany.


Sonja Haug

contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023 as Professor of Empirical Social Research at Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg and a spokesperson for the “Migration, Integration, World Population” working group of the German Society for Demography (DGD).


Susanne Schmid

contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023. She is head of the “Social Development, Migration, Integration” department of the Academy for Politics and Contemporary Affairs at the Hanns-Seidel-Foundation and spokesperson for the “Migration, Integration, World Population” working group of the German Society for Demography (DGD).


Sabrina Gabel

contributed to D+C/E+Z in winter of 2022/2023. She is working for the German development agency GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammen­arbeit).

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