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Contagious politics and COVID-19: Does the infectious disease hit populist supporters harder?

GDI Briefing - 21. Februar 2023 - 11:33

As an example of a typical right-wing populist, Jair Bolsonaro downplayed Covid-19 and rejected scientific evidence to address the pandemic. We argue that both his communication style and approach to crisis management had consequences for the behavioural patterns of his followers, which, in turn, had public health implications. Building on survey research, we demonstrate how Bolsonaro’s supporters were less likely to consider the pandemic as a key challenge for the country, less worried about getting infected and less likely to wear masks. We show that this ‘riskier’ behaviour had concrete repercussions. Even after controlling for confounders such as population density, age, education and wealth, municipalities with higher aggregate support for Bolsonaro had higher Covid-19 infection rates in 2020 and saw more people dying from the virus.

Kategorien: english

Understanding epistemic erasures of local & indigenous communities:

EADI Debating Development Research - 21. Februar 2023 - 10:56
Decolonizing research and re-imagining alternative partnerships in Development Studies By Yafa El Masri, Melis Cin, Kitty Furtado, Paola Minoia and Rahime Süleymanoğlu-Kürüm / New Rhythms of Development blog series Epistemic erasures continue to exist in a wide range of institutional designs at the local, national, regional, European and international level. Bringing up a debate on …
Kategorien: english, Ticker

How Our CHORIZO Project Aims To Shift Social Norms Toward Less Food Waste

SCP-Centre - 21. Februar 2023 - 9:24

As a set of rules commonly accepted by groups, social norms play a key role in guiding human behaviour. This is why shifting social norms can be a major lever toward better appreciation of food in society.

Our three-year CHORIZO project takes an innovative approach to tackling the issue of food loss and waste through gathering insights on social norms in a range of food-related settings and generating effective ways to apply the behaviour change technique in six real-life case study contexts.

“CHORIZO wants to close a knowledge gap by showcasing how social norms can be a tool to increase the impact of food loss and waste solutions. As CSCP we are excited to be part of this consortium and contribute with our combined expertise on food waste gained in projects such as the Dialogue Forum, REFRESH and REIF as well as our behaviour change know-how, drawing on our experiences in successful capacity building programmes such as the Academy of Change or weiter_wirken”, says Nora Brüggemann, CSCP CHORIZO Project Director.

Following the kick-off meeting in late 2022, the consortium has come together to develop a conceptual framework on how social norms will be interpreted and used across the project activities as well as search for insights from the most effective and promising food waste and loss actions from around Europe. These will then be used to inform the project’s further research.

The work around the six CHORIZO case studies has also started. The case studies will be used to explore the impact of social norms on food waste and loss in different settings across Europe in order to explore how context affects impact. The six case studies will be:

Households: Analysis of food loss in Flemish and Spanish households, looking at qualitative datasets on consumer motivations, attitudes towards food waste in times of crisis

Hotels: Focusing on hotel food waste in Norway using qualitative datasets on consumer perceptions of hotel food, for example the portion size and buffets

Restaurants: Exploring food waste in restaurants in Slovenia with qualitative datasets on consumer perceptions of restaurant food, for example leftover food and portion size

Schools and children: Quantitative research on the impact of education and food waste literacy training on food loss and food waste in Denmark, looking at families’, households’ and childrens’ norms, attitudes, and behaviour

Food Banks: Quantitative datasets on demand and supply of food surplus in Hungary focusing on consumer perceptions of food banks

Date Marking: Exploration of date marking (“use by” and “best by”) and its effect on food waste in Spain using qualitative datasets on consumer opinions regarding date marking, the importance of taste, sustainability, and trust/confidence in a product as well as consumer perceptions about packaging in terms of perceived food shelf life.

Are you aware of any great interventions to reduce food loss and waste in any of the case study contexts? Please reach out to us and share your insights and experiences!

The CHORIZO project is funded by the European Union’s Horizon Europe research programme and will run for three years (2022-2025). The CSCP is part of a consortium of 14 European partners.

For further questions, please contact Rosalyn Old.

The post How Our CHORIZO Project Aims To Shift Social Norms Toward Less Food Waste appeared first on CSCP gGmbH.

Kategorien: english, Ticker

How Guinea Worm Disease Came to the Cusp of Global Eradication

UN Dispatch - 21. Februar 2023 - 3:14

Humanity is tantalizingly close to killing off the last Guinea Worm. This is a water born parasite that when ingested grows and grows until it painfully exits the body through a lesion in the skin. There is no treatment for it. There is no cure for it. But it can be prevented. And if prevented everywhere, Guinea Worm Disease will be eradicated.

We are now on the cusp of that moment. In 2022, there were just 13 confirmed human cases of Guinea Worm Disease around the world. This is down from three and a half million cases in the early 1980s.  At the center of the global campaign to eradicate guinea worm disease is the Carter Center Joining me from Mali is Adam Joseph Weiss, director of the Guinea Worm Eradication Program at the Carter Center who explains why Guinea Worm Disease may be the second disease (after smallpox) to ever become eradicated thanks to human effort.

To listen to this episode on your preferred podcast listening app, go here. 


The post How Guinea Worm Disease Came to the Cusp of Global Eradication appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

The Time Has Come for Multi-dimensional Development Metrics – India’s G20 Presidency

OECD - 20. Februar 2023 - 14:48

By G A Tadas, Visiting Fellow, Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi, India. Views expressed are personal.

GDP has long served as the key indicator of a country’s development, but is this the only factor that matters in citizens’ lives? Does more money categorically result in better lives?  The India G20 presidency is looking for other metrics to complement these measures.

The post The Time Has Come for Multi-dimensional Development Metrics – India’s G20 Presidency appeared first on Development Matters.

Kategorien: english

On World Day of Social Justice, deeper dialogue across ‘real economy’ can drive progress, UN deputy chief says

UN #SDG News - 20. Februar 2023 - 13:00
Social progress must move into the spotlight, flanked by policies that can drive meaningful change for millions of currently struggling people, the UN deputy chief said, marking the World Day of Social Justice on Monday.
Kategorien: english

Quasi-experimental evidence on carbon pricing

GDI Briefing - 20. Februar 2023 - 11:11

A growing literature suggests that carbon emissions are most efficiently reduced by carbon pricing. The evidence base on the effectiveness of market-based mechanisms, however, face three key limitations: studies often (a) predict, rather than evaluate effects, (b) show large difference in findings, and (c) cannot always infer causal relations. Quasi-experimental studies can address these challenges by using variation in policies over time, space or entities. This paper systematically reviews this new literature, outlines the benefits and caveats of quasi-experimental methodologies, and verifies the reliability and value of quasi-experimental estimates. The overall evidence base documents a causal effect between carbon pricing and emission reductions, with ambiguous effects on economic outcomes, and there are important gaps and inconsistencies. Our review underscores that estimates should be interpreted with care because of: (i) inappropriate choice of method, (ii) incorrect implementation of empirical analysis (e.g. violate identifying assumptions), and (iii) data limitations. More cross-learning across studies and use of novel empirical strategies is needed to improve the empirical evidence base going forward.

Kategorien: english

Mexico: joining forces to make cities greener

GIZ Germany - 17. Februar 2023 - 20:39
: Fri, 21 Oct 2022 HH:mm:ss
In Mexico’s coastal regions, residents design their own urban districts. The aim: healthy cities with a high quality of life for everyone.
Kategorien: english

Afghanistan: GIZ is assisting local employees to leave the country

GIZ Germany - 17. Februar 2023 - 20:39
: Mon, 24 Jan 2022 HH:mm:ss
Vulnerable people from other organisations are also supported.
Kategorien: english

Guterres calls for G20 to agree $500 billion annual stimulus for sustainable development

UN #SDG News - 17. Februar 2023 - 13:00
The UN on Friday called for a significant increase to the tune of $500 billion each year in extra financing from the world’s most developed nations, to meet the crucial 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Kategorien: english

Towards a seat at the table: how an initiative of cities got their voices heard during Germany’s 2022 G7 presidency

GDI Briefing - 17. Februar 2023 - 9:14

In the past, both researchers and policymakers have often underlined the important role cities have to play in reaching the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Meanwhile, city networks have become increasingly active in approaching international institutions and getting their voices heard. Among them are the Urban7 Group – a recently founded group of city associations from G7 countries advocating for a stronger involvement of cities in G7 policymaking. The discussion about who has a voice in the G7 and what role cities can potentially play in it is significant. The G7, despite being somewhat contentious, remains a highly relevant forum both in terms of the negative contribution of its members to global sustainability crises (such as climate change) and their collective economic capability to address the crises. In the past, references to the role of cities were largely absent from G7 official documents; this changed during Germany’s G7 presidency in 2022. Based on a document analysis and semi-structured interviews with ministry officials and city network representatives, this paper investigates how, in 2022, the Urban7 Group was involved in the G7 process, and which actors and contextual factors had an impact on the width and depth of this involvement. While the German presidency opted not to directly involve the Urban7 Group as an official G7 engagement group, the group nevertheless gained access to ministerial negotiations, in particular those of the new G7 track on urban development. The paper finds that this engagement was facilitated by pre-existing contacts with ministerial officials as well as changes in the delineation of ministries following the German federal election in late 2021 that led to changes in political leadership and the formation of a new ministry to take responsibility for urban development. The paper closes with critical reflections on the 2022 process, recommendations and potential avenues for future research.

Kategorien: english

Urban economic development in Africa: A case study of Nairobi city

Brookings - 17. Februar 2023 - 6:01

By Jacob Nato, Humphrey Njogu, Rose Ngugi, Aloysius Uche Ordu, Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez

At about 4.4 percent, Africa has the fastest urbanization rate globally. Already, the region has reached 40 percent urbanization and by 2050, the number of urban residents will have doubled. Moreover, about 60 percent of Africa’s urban population today lives in informal low-income neighborhoods.

In most countries, urbanization leads to substantial productivity gains supported by scale, density, and agglomeration. Better connected people and firms lead to savings in transport and logistics, technological and information spillovers, and more efficient labor markets. However, Africa’s urbanization has not realized the full potential and benefits of such agglomeration. The economic transformation and benefits of urbanization, observed in other regions, are yet to be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa.

To understand the barriers, and unlock the economic opportunities of urbanization, the Africa Growth Initiative (AGI) at the Brookings Institution developed an “Urban Economic Growth Framework for African cities.” The framework focuses on the three primary constraints limiting a city’s ability to benefit from agglomeration and generate productive jobs: Accessibility, the business environment, and public sector governance. The framework provides specific indicators and ways to identify these three critical constraints, with a view to inform and guide policymakers on specific actions and appropriate policies.

As a start, the AGI framework was applied to the city of Nairobi (Kenya’s capital), to analyze Nairobi’s key challenges and possible solutions for growth and employment.

Unemployment and underemployment in Nairobi are a top concern, especially as youth makeup 48 percent of the total unemployed workforce (15 to 64 years). While the labor force in Kenya has been growing at an average annual rate of about 3 percent, Nairobi needs to generate many more (and better) jobs to offer improved livelihood opportunities to its large youth demographic. At the national level, Kenya has registered good progress in creating jobs, especially in the digital and gig economy. The report recommends two areas of focus. First, in coordination with the national government, Nairobi City County needs to support the gradual formalization of the large number of informal jobs and enterprises by easing business registration and motivating registration through targeted support programs. Second, better education and skills in targeted economic sectors are required to enhance productivity and earnings. Nairobi city should ensure that tertiary institutions provide training and skills consistent with emerging technologies.

[Nairobi] city has enormous potential to achieve the benefits of urban agglomeration and create productive jobs by paying particular attention to its challenges in accessibility and infrastructure, business environment, as well as public sector governance and finance.

Furthermore, enterprise data in Nairobi shows that businesses are likely to transition from micro- to medium-, and to large enterprises as the owners’ levels of education attainment rises.

Accessibility within the city: Accessibility is vital for connecting workers to firms and firms to markets. Despite the excellent progress made on infrastructure development, there is a high concentration of unpaved roads in Nairobi’s high-density informal settlements.

Consequently, as shown in the report, most jobs are not accessible within one hour of public transport commute i.e., commuting time by bus, matatu (shared taxi), or foot. The city also has a mismatch in zoning and land use. Nairobi therefore needs a new approach to urban planning that considers population growth, infrastructure, housing, and land use. Equally important is updating the land appraisal system and creating more public spaces.

Business environment: Many businesses in the city face several challenges, including complex processes to access licenses and permits, insufficient finance, expensive land, rigid labor regulations, inefficiency in tax administration, and crime risk. For example, a business takes about 92 days to secure an electricity connection. A firm loses about KSh 2.3 million per year due to power outages on average. These are critical areas for Nairobi to enhance its business environment. Furthermore, it is essential to coordinate the implementation of business policy reforms between the national and county governments.

Public sector governance and finances: The devolution process in Kenya has given Nairobi City County a total of 14 constitutional functions. The city faces important challenges in terms of financing, despite the commendable increase in revenues and fiscal transfers from KSh 9.51 billion in FY 2013/14 to KSh 19.42 billion in FY 2020/21. Still, the city faces several financing shortfalls, from high levels of pending bills and fiscal deficits, to delays in receipt of equitable fiscal transfers. These challenges call for proper budget planning, improved budget execution, and higher levels of the city’s source revenue.

The application of the AGI Urban Economic Growth Framework to Nairobi City County shows that the city has enormous potential to achieve the benefits of urban agglomeration and create productive jobs by paying particular attention to its challenges in accessibility and infrastructure, business environment, as well as public sector governance and finance.

Kategorien: english

Urban economic growth in Africa: A case study of Nairobi City County, Kenya

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 18:58

By James Gachanja, John Karanja, Jacob Nato, Rose Ngugi, Humphrey Njogu, Brian Nyaware, Charity Mbaka, Shadrack Mwatu, Melap Sitati

For most countries, urbanization has resulted in substantial productivity gains created by the agglomeration economies that cities generate. However, while Africa has the highest rate of urbanization in the world, the region’s cities are not realizing the full potential and benefits of agglomeration. Sub-Saharan Africa is failing to reap the economic benefits of urbanization observed in other regions.

To unlock the potential for Africa’s cities to act as an engine of productivity growth and structural change, the Africa Growth Initiative at Brookings formulated a framework to help identify key constraints to productive urbanization.

In this report, the framework is applied to the city of Nairobi in Kenya. The study focuses on four major objectives: generating productive jobs, linking workers to firms, connecting firms to markets, strengthening public governance, and a review of policy initiatives for Nairobi to enhance the city’s economic growth.

Key findings suggest that jobs are not accessible within one hour of public transport commute and that Nairobi city county also has a mismatch in zoning and land use. In addition, urban firms face complex compliance processes and regulations. Moreover, the city’s administration faces financing shortfalls resulting from delays in the receipt of fiscal transfers and low levels of source revenue.

The report concludes with a summary of recommendations to enhance the productivity as well economic growth of Nairobi City County with the overarching goal of creating jobs.

Download the full report here.

Kategorien: english

Q&A: Partnering to close the health equity gap

Devex - 16. Februar 2023 - 17:30
Kategorien: english

It’s Syria Earthquake Relief vs Messy International Politics

UN Dispatch - 16. Februar 2023 - 16:28

The devastating earthquake in southern Turkiye is going to require a massive humanitarian response. But the contours of that response will be vastly different in Syria than in Turkey.

The very parts of Syria hardest hit by the earthquake are those that are under the control of Syrian rebel groups and where there is active fighting. Now, we have an epic humanitarian catastrophe layered on top of an epic humanitarian catastrophe — all in the dead of winter.

Vanessa Jackson is the UN Representative for Care International, a large international humanitarian relief organization with operations in the region. We kick off discussing the expected humanitarian needs in the coming weeks and months before having a longer conversation about why geopolitical rivalries and the ongoing war in Syria will profoundly complicate relief efforts going forward.

To listen to this episode on your favorite podcast player, go here.


The post It’s Syria Earthquake Relief vs Messy International Politics appeared first on UN Dispatch.

Kategorien: english

Ensuring inclusive, affordable, and smooth climate transition in Indonesia

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 14:30

By M. Chatib Basri, Teuku Riefky

How should a climate-vulnerable coastal country heavily dependent on coal transition to a sustainable development path? In this working paper, Basri and Riefky discuss the climate transition in Indonesia. Basri and Riefky first assess Indonesia’s economic and environmental situation, noting that Indonesia is one of the countries most affected by climate change, facing issues ranging from disrupted life in its myriad coastal communities to food insecurity. Then, they discuss the measures taken by Indonesia to transition to a green economy, including the design of NDC and financing efforts. Based on this, the authors discuss how Indonesia has transitioned in terms of political economy, fiscal transition, and coal phase-out. Finally, the authors outline an ambitious blueprint for Indonesia’s climate transition, which includes the joint efforts of the government, civil society, and the international community. 

Q & A with the authors What is one main message from your chapter?   

The success of achieving inclusive, affordable, and smooth climate transition in Indonesia will be determined by its ability to come up with policies that are financially, politically, and institutionally practical. 

What presents the biggest opportunity?   

Framing climate policies as part of long-term development agenda that are aligned with the government’s priorities and political interest will gain necessary support to push forward the transition agenda. 

What serves as the biggest challenge?   

Indonesia’s high dependency on coal and fossil fuel transpire into high transition cost, stemming from large, vested interest of the private sectors and high political cost from the government. 

What gives you the most hope? 

The increasing role of civil society in advocating climate issues will help raise awareness and build a public consensus, which exerts more pressure on the policymakers and tilts the balance of political incentives in favor of more aggressive climate actions. 

Download the full working paper here.

Kategorien: english

Delivering Nigeria’s green transition

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 14:30

By Belinda Archibong, Philip Osafo-Kwaako

How should countries with many people living in absolute poverty combat climate change and energy transition while addressing poverty, creating jobs, and making progress on other sustainable development goals? This working paper focuses on Nigeria, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of implementing its green transition objectives. Archibong and Osafo-Kwaako discuss the interrelated challenges for Nigeria: high climate vulnerability, low human development indicators, low energy access, and high energy cost. Then, the authors review the Nigerian government’s policies and barriers to support the green transition and discuss institutional arrangements and other priorities that could help implement climate-related activities in Nigeria. The central argument is that while climate change poses a risk to Nigeria’s development prospects, it also provides opportunities for Nigeria to rethink the design and implementation of its national development programs. A coherent development plan focusing on the climate investment opportunity could enable Nigeria to improve its development indicators while pursuing its international climate commitments. 

Q & A with the authors What is one main message from your chapter?  

Despite Nigeria’s heavy reliance on the oil and gas sector, a green, just transition is not only possible, it is necessary to achieve poverty reduction, expand employment opportunities and boost economic growth for the millions of households in the country. There are various effective policies to boost domestic and international financing and invest in climate mitigation and adaptation measures that can deliver a growth-enhancing green transition.   

What presents the biggest opportunity? 

A green, just transition is possible and can help improve energy access, cut firm production and reduce poverty and inequality through improving the health and labor market outcomes of Nigeria’s population. Policies and investments focused on mitigation, through both emission fees and more efficient commercialization of the gas sector domestically, and mobilizing international financing internationally, and adaptation, through investment in increasingly lower cost renewable energy and climate-smart architecture, can produce huge economic returns by 2030, if promptly and properly implemented. 

What serves as the biggest challenge?  

The Nigerian economy’s heavy dependence on the oil and gas sector for government revenue makes both funding and facilitating a green transition a major challenge. Poverty (both income poverty and energy poverty in the case of the country’s lagging electricity access) and regional inequality make the majority of households extremely vulnerable to climate shocks. Green transition policies must jointly tackle poverty reduction and climate mitigation measures/a shift away from fossil fuels with policies that provide the most gains to the most vulnerable regions and populations in the country, so as not to worsen economic inequality.  

What gives you the most hope?

Nigeria has a history of successful implementation of large-scale policies and projects that reduced poverty and inequality for millions of its residents. Policies like the country’s 1976 Universal Primary Education reform which significantly improved access to primary education for millions of people, show that the country has the potential to enact large-scale, sweeping, effective, welfare-enhancing reforms. Recent government commitments through the 2021 Climate Change act provides an institutional framework for large scale reforms to facilitate a just transition that would similarly transform the lives of millions of the country’s population, given prompt and proper implementation. 

Download the full working paper here.

Kategorien: english

Keys to climate action: How developing countries could drive global success and local prosperity

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 14:30

By Amar Bhattacharya, Homi Kharas, John McArthur

A new narrative needs to capture the interwoven nature of the world’s climate and economic development challenges, anchored in the evolving and diverse perspectives of developing countries themselves.  

An updated portrayal begins with the stark reality of climate change’s devastating consequences already hindering economic development around the world. It underscores the need for urgent investments in adaptation, resilience, and nature to avoid development setbacks while paying heed to the world’s narrow window for climate action. It requires empathy for many developing countries’ profound energy conundrum: a tension between the need to expand access for people who need it most while facing pressures to pursue low-carbon opportunities, often in the face of local political and financing headwinds. It implies practical urgency in tackling the broken threads of the international financing system for climate and development.  

To set a more robust global path to net-zero emissions by 2050, the world needs to pay greater attention to the needs of emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs), even when holding aside the special case of China. Over the coming several decades, no part of the world will play a greater role in both experiencing and affecting global climate change outcomes than EMDEs themselves.  They need greater international support to tackle growth-enhancing sustainable development strategies.  

With their growing leverage, developing countries have new opportunities to lean forward with a unified “ask” in global climate and development negotiations. The broader prize and aspiration amount to a full-fledged re-conception of models for sustainable development and of international cooperation. Falling short by losing sight of the big picture or wrangling excessively over details will dim the prospects for prosperity around the world. Rising to the occasion, however, can help usher in a new era of prosperity for all. 

This edited volume brings together a cross section of distinguished academics and leading policy voices from a variety of developing country geographies and contexts. First, it presents perspectives on the local climate and development challenges and opportunities in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and South Africa. Then, broader case studies focus on issues spanning East Africa, the African continent as a whole, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Vulnerable Twenty (V20) Group of Ministers of Finance of the Climate Vulnerable Forum. The volume concludes with a chapter focused on systemic issues in financing development and climate-driven prosperity.  

Chapters and Contributors  

1. Overview: Keys to Climate Action— Download here, or access the key messages here.

Amar Bhattacharya, Homi Kharas, and John W McArthur

2. A just and green transition in Bangladesh

Saleemul Huq and Mizan Khan

3. Climate action in Egypt: Challenges and opportunities

Hala Abou-Ali, Amira Elayouty, and Mahmoud Mohieldin    

4. Managing climate change: A strategy for India

Montek Singh Ahluwalia and Utkarsh Patel  

5. Ensuring inclusive, affordable, and smooth climate transition in Indonesia 

Muhamad Chatib Basri and Teuku Riefky  

6. Delivering Nigeria’s green transition

Belinda Archibong and Philip Osafo-Kwaako  

7. South Africa’s ‘just transition’: A whole economy transformation 

Richard Calland  

8. Challenges and opportunities of climate change: The case of East Africa

Njuguna Ndung’u and Théophile Azomahou  

9. Delivering Africa’s great green transformation

Vera Songwe and Jean-Paul Adam  

10. Tackling climate change from an investment-led development perspective in Latin America and the Caribbean

Daniel Titleman, Michael Hanni, Noel Pérez Benítez, and Jean-Baptiste Carpentier  

11. Climate action in the most vulnerable countries

Sara Jane Ahmed  

12. Financing climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries

Montek Singh Ahluwalia and Utkarsh Patel  

Kategorien: english

Climate action in the most vulnerable countries

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 14:30

By Sara Jane Ahmed

In this working paper, Ahmed focuses on the V20, a group of finance ministers representing 58 climate-vulnerable countries, home to 1.4 billion people. She documents the massive wealth destruction from climate losses incurred over the last two decades—around $525 billion or 20 percent of total potential. Ahmed highlights a key initiative of the V20 – Climate Prosperity Plans (CPPs) designed to integrate measures that counteract climate risks and leverage transition opportunities. CPPs catalyze and accelerate the realization of green transition outcomes as a co-benefit of what is ultimately a more effective development strategy compared to business as usual, including narrow, one-size-fits-all climate strategies. The V20 case highlights major gaps in the international financial architecture: from making debt work for the most vulnerable to overcoming capital hurdles to investment to facilitating global exchanges via carbon finance, fully integrating climate risks, climate action prioritization of development finance institutions (DFIs), and establishing pre-arranged and trigger-based funding responsive to loss and damage settings. Special mechanisms are likewise urgently needed to maximize renewable energy wealth and resilience while reducing new sources of financial vulnerability from volatility and increasing fossil fuel-induced severity of climate change-fueled events that result in the mounting cost of capital and spiraling debt levels in many V20 countries. Ahmed explains in the working paper why many renewable energy, adaptation, and resilience initiatives only become bankable when the cost of capital is reasonable. Mechanisms to bring down this cost are thus vital to securing durable pathways to climate prosperity. 

Q & A with the author What is one main message from your chapter?  

To achieve truly enduring and transformational outcomes, the Paris Agreement must go far beyond COP negotiations and bring about rapid changes in the real economy. This is why it is critical to advance and realize vulnerable country initiatives such as Climate Prosperity Plans with multilateral reforms over the next two to three years. 

What presents the biggest opportunity?

Accelerate reform of the international financial architecture in 2023 in order to course correct and finally deliver durable gains for economies that face extreme vulnerability as well as to shift financial flows toward the 1.5°C safety limit of Paris. 

What serves as the biggest challenge?  

The question bears repeating – can fiscal space be assessed properly without including physical risk, transition risk and spillover transition risks? Fossil fuels are sources of financial liability and the way they continue to generate new dimensions of financial vulnerability.   

What gives you the most hope?

While vulnerable countries are still often left out of global strategies to avert climate breakdown, more and more are now grasping the tremendous global impact potential of new vulnerable country-driven partnerships and economic cooperation where inclusive, sustainable development goals drive positive climate action between advanced economies and the most climate vulnerable. 

Download the full working paper here.

Kategorien: english

Managing climate change: A strategy for India

Brookings - 16. Februar 2023 - 14:30

By Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Utkarsh Patel

In this working paper, Ahluwalia and Patel describe how India could make progress towards meeting its climate change mitigation commitments which involve achieving net zero emissions by 2070. This will require action on several fronts, notably: transforming the electricity sector to rely increasingly on renewable energy (RE), electrification of transport, decarbonization of hard-to-abate industrial sectors like steel and fertilizer using green hydrogen, etc. All this must be accompanied by improvements in energy efficiency which in turn depend upon rational energy pricing and suitable regulation. The shift to RE will present problems of intermittent supply which has to be balanced through grid-scale batteries or pumped-hydro storage. The working paper shows that the government is aware that action will be needed in several areas and some movement in these directions has already begun. However, the pace of progress has to be greatly accelerated. The multiplicity of interventions needed require coordination not only across ministries but also across different levels of government. The transformation will also involve significant additional investment, and this will call for substantial international financial support. Ahluwalia and Patel emphasize that although there has to be a large role for international finance, much of the additional investment would need to come from domestic sources, both public and private. Private investment in the power sector in particular calls for urgent reforms of the distribution sector which is currently financially unviable because of unsustainably low tariffs and persistent nonpayment of electricity dues. The overall picture presented by the authors is that the transition is feasible, but it calls for determined action in many areas, some of which are politically sensitive. As a practical matter, the long term decarbonization strategy needs to be decomposed into a strategy for the next ten years, with granular detail on what needs to be done in each sector over the ten-year period. 

Q & A with the authors What is one main message from your chapter?  

A successful decarbonization of the economy on the scale required to meet COP26 commitments is technically feasible, but also very difficult. A practical way of proceeding is to decompose the long-term transition pathway to net zero into short-term phases of around ten years and define sector-specific targets for decarbonization in this period. 

What presents the biggest opportunity?

Much of the investments needed for managing climate change align with sustainable development goals, and therefore, developing countries can tackle both issues simultaneously by prioritizing climate action along with economic development. 

What serves as the biggest challenge?

Transitioning to greener sources of energy, which tends to be intermittent and requires balancing at an additional cost, while ensuring energy access to low-income households. Ideally, the transition should be facilitated by action on the price front which means introducing some form of carbon taxation and using the revenues to expand RE capacity and to support affected households with cash transfers. 

What gives you the most hope?

India is a fast-growing large economy, and the Indian government has made bold commitments to transition to RE and reduce emissions. This has already helped accelerate private sector involvement in the green sectors of the economy, driving technology adoption and advancements. There is also growing public awareness and civil society participation in the areas of environment, ecology, and climate to promote sustainability.

Download the full working paper here.

Kategorien: english


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